HISTORY
OF
THE CALIPHS

From The Death of the Messenger (s) to the Decline of The
Umayyad Dynasty 11-132 AH
Vol.2

By: Rasūl Ja'farīan

Translation by: Ali Ebrahimi

Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
First Edition 1382 -1424 - 2003
Thamin Al-a'immah Press
Quantity: 2000
Number of Pages: 664
Size: 162 x 229 mm
ISBN: 964-438-457-1

ALL RIGHTS RECORDED AND RESERVED FOR THE PUBLISHER

 Ansariyan Publications
P.O. Box 187
22 Shohada St., Qum
Islamic Republic of  Iran
Tel: 0098 251 7741744 Fax: 7742647
Email: ansarian@noornet.net

www.ansariyan.net & www.ansariyan.org

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.

TRANSLATOR’S NOTE 9

CHAPTER I

11
  ABŪ BAKR’S CALIPHATE
SAQĪFA
CALIPHATE AFTER THE PROPHET (S)
THE ISSUE OF APOSTASY
ABŪ BAKR’S AGENTS
CONQUEST OF DAMASCUS
CONQUEST OF IRAQ
11
11
21
24
34
38
43

CHAPTER II

51
  ‘UMAR’S CALIPHATE
ABOUT CALIPH II

THE CALIPH’S CHARACTER
‘UMAR’S FUNCTIONARIES
THOUGHTS OF THE SECOND CALIPH
‘UMAR’S MURDER
CONTINUED CONQUESTS IN DAMASCUS AND EGYPT
CONTINUED CONQUESTS IN IRAQ AND THE CONQUEST OF IRAN
ABOUT IRAN’S CONQUEST
51
51
55
59
67
86
91
97
106

CHAPTER III

111
  ‘UTHMĀN’S CALIPHATE
CALIPHATE COUNCIL AND ‘UTHMĀN’S ELECTION

‘UTHMĀN’S CALIPHATE
REASONS OF ANTI-‘UTHMĀN REBELLION
‘UTHMĀN’S OPPONENTS
‘UTHMĀN’S CONTACT WITH DISSENTERS
‘UTHMĀN AND MU‘ĀWIYA
IMĀM ‘ALī (A) AND ‘UTHMĀN
ASSASSINATION OF ‘UTHMĀN
ONGOING VICTORIES
EFFECTS OF VICTORIES AND ISLAMIC COMMUNITY
111
111
123
125
134
142
152
154
160
164
165

CHAPTER IV

173
  IMĀM ‘ALĪ’S IMAMATE
IMĀM ‘ALĪ ALONGSIDE THE PROPHET

IMĀM ‘ALĪ AND CALIPHS
SHI‘ISM DURING IMĀM’S CALIPHATE
PEOPLE’S ALLEGIANCE TO ‘ALĪ (A)
IMĀM’S PROBLEMS
REFORMATION, IMĀM’S FUNDAMENTAL POLICY
IMĀM IN THE FACE OF INFIDELS (DJAMAL WAR)
IMĀM STAYS IN KŪFA
WAR WITH OPPRESSIVELY PERVERSE PEOPLE IN SIFFĪN
WAR WITH EXTREMIST KHĀRIDJITES
THE KHĀRIDJITES, FORMATION AND CHARACTERISTICS
INVASIONS OF DAMASCUS ARMY
IMĀM ‘ALĪ’S MARTYRDOM
IMĀM ‘ALĪ’S LIFE
173
173
178
184
198
210
217
223
240
243
270
276
284
292
294

CHAPTER V

299
  IMĀM HASAN’S IMAMATE
ACQUAINTANCE WITH THE KŪFIYĀNS

IMĀM HASAN’S CHARACTER
IMĀM MUDJTABĀ AND IMAMATE
FIRST ACTIONS OF IMĀM AND MU‘ĀWIYA
MU‘ĀWIYA AND REQUEST FOR COMPROMISE
WHY THE COMPROMISE WAS ACCEPTED
IMĀM HUSAYN (A) AND COMPROMISE
PEACE PACT
IMĀM MUDJTABĀ’S CHARACTER
IMĀM HASAN’S MARTYDOM
299
299
303
307
313
319
320
326
328
333
335

CHAPTER VI

339
  MU‘ĀWIYA’S MONARCHY
MU‘ĀWIYA, THE FOUNDER OF THE UMAYYAD MONARCHY

SHI‘ITE MUSLIMS IN MU‘ĀWIYA’S TIME
THE SUPPRESSION OF HUDJR IBN ‘ADī’S SHI‘ITES MOVEMENT
REPERCUSSIONS OF HUDJR’S MARTYRDOM
CONQUESTS IN MU‘ĀWIYA’S TIME
THE KHĀRIDJITES IN MU‘ĀWIYA’S TIME
MU‘ĀWIYA’S ENDEAVOR FOR HEREDITARY CALIPHATE
339
339
354
363
368
370
372
377

CHAPTER VII

387
  KARBALĀ MOVEMENT
IMĀM HUSAYN BEFORE KARBALĀ’

IMĀM HUSAYN’S OPPOSITION TO YAZĀD’S CALIPHATE
DISPATCHING MUSLIM TO KūFA
IMāM’S MOVE TOWARDS IRAQ
THE PEOPLE OF KūFA AND KARBALā EVENT
KŪFA UNDER THE PRESSURE OF IBN ZIYĀD
ASSESSING THE TRAVEL TO IRAQ
IMĀM VERSUS IRAQI ARMY 415
THE ELEMENT OF INVISIBILITY IN KARBALĀ
THE ROLE OF RELIGIOUS DEVIATIONS IN KARBALĀ EVENT
POLITICAL IMPACTS OF THE EVENT OF KARBALĀ ON SHI‘ISM
387
387
393
395
399
401
403
408
415
423
425
429

CHAPTER VIII

433
  TRANSFER OF CALIPHATE TO THE MARWĀNIDS
DISPUTE BETWEEN HIDJĀZ AND DAMASCUS

THE BATTLE OF HARRA WĀQIM
THE PENITENTS’ MOVEMENT IN 65 A.H
HERE SOME POINTS MERIT ATTENTION AS REGARDS TO THE PENITENTS
MUKHTĀR’S UPRISING (66, 67 A.H.)
433
433
434
440
447
449

CHAPTER IX

465
  IMĀM SADJDJĀD (A)
IMĀM SADJDJĀD(A)

IMĀM SADJDJĀD AND SHI‘ITE MUSLIMS
IMĀM’S ENCOUNTER WITH THE UMAYYADS
IMĀM SADJDJĀD’S PROFITING FROM DU‘Ā (PRAYER)
IMĀM SADJDJĀD AND SLAVES
THE HĀSHIMITES AFTER THE EVENT OF KARBALĀ’
465
465
471
476
479
483
485

CHAPTER X

493
  THE MARWĀNIDS’ GOVERNMENT
ĀL MARWĀN’S RULE

HADJDJĀDJ IN IRAQ
‘ABD AL-RAHMĀN IBN ASH‘ATH’S RIOT
‘UMAR IBN ‘ABD AL-‘AZĪZ’S ADMINISTRATION
ENCOUNTERING THE SHI‘ITE MUSLIMS
ENCOUNTERING THE KHĀRIDJITES
STANDING AGAINST CRUELTY AND PUBLIC EXTORTION
YAZĪD IBN ‘ABD AL-MALIK’S SUCCESSION
YAZĪD IBN MUHALLAB’S UPRISING
HISHĀM IBN ‘ABD AL-MALIK’S SUCCESSION
KHĀRIDJITES’ REBELLION IN TIME OF THE MARWĀNIDS
THE FOUNDATION OF THE KHĀRIDJITES’ PRINCIPLES
493
493
499
504
508
509
512
513
516
518
522
525
531

CHAPTER XI

535
  SHI‘ITE MUSLIMS IN THE LAST DECADES OF THE UMAYYAD STATE
THE SHI‘ITE MUSLIMS UNDER THE PRESSURE OF THE UMAYYADS

INTERNAL EVENTS OF SHI‘ITE MUSLIMS
EXAGGERATION AND THE EXAGGERATORS
CONFRONTATION OF IMĀMS WITH THE EXAGGERATORS
SHI‘ISM WHEN GIVING SUPERIORITY TO ‘ALĪ (A)
ZAYD IBN ‘ALĪ’S UPRISING AND THE ZAYDĪDS IN SHI‘ISM
ZAYD IBN ‘ALĪ IN KŪFA
ZAYD IBN ‘ALĪ’S CLASH WITH THE UMAYYADS’ FORCES
ZAYDISM, SHI‘ISM AND ZAYD IBN ‘ALĪ (A)
THE TWELVE-IMĀM SHI‘ITE MUSLIMS AND ZAYD
YAHYĀ IBN ZAYD’S UPRISING
‘ABD ALLĀH IBN MU‘ĀWIYA’S UPRISING
THE SHI‘ITE MUSLIMS AND THE ‘ALAWITES’ LAST POSITION
IN THE UMAYYADS’S TIME
535
535
538
539
542
549
557
560
566
571
579
590
593
597
 

CHAPTER XII

601
  DECLINE OF THE MARWĀNIDS
HĀRITH IBN SURAYDJ IN KHURĀSĀN

THE MURDJI‘ITES AND THE DJAHMITES IN HĀRITH’S UPRISING
WALĪD IBN YAZĪD’S CALIPHATE AND EXTREME CORRUPTION
 OF THE UMAYYADS

THE IMPACTS OF WALīD’S DEATH ON THE UMAYYADS AND THEIR FALL
MARWĀN IBN MUHAMMAD AND THE DECLINE OF THE UMAYYADS
POLITICAL VIEWS OF THE MARWĀNIDS
SCHOLARS SERVE ĀL MARWĀN
CIRCULATION OF ISRAELITES AND THE PREVALENCE OF STORY-TELLING
CONQUESTS BY THE MARWāNIDS UNTIL LATE FIRST CENTURY
ORIENTAL CONQUESTS
OCCIDENTAL CONQUESTS
601
601
605
607

614
616
619
632
636
642
642
646

REFERENCES 649