MODELS OF THE PERPETUITY OF THE TWO TRENDS
Let us cite some examples on the continuity of the two trends for the purpose of making the matter more obvious:
aIbn Sa`d has recorded that `Abdullah ibn al-`Ala' asked al-Qasim to dictate to him some of the Hadiths. Al-Qasim said,
During the age of `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB, the records of Hadith increased vastly that `Umar ordered people to bring any record they had kept. When all the records were brought before him, `Umar set them to fire and said, "This is a Mishna just like that of the Christians and the Jews."(1)
In view of such incidents, many questions that search for convincing answers jump to the mind of the readers: Why did the records of the Hadith increase in the reign of `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB, not any other calipha What is the significance of such an occurrencea Why did `Umar set them to fire, instead of erasing them with water of burying thema Why did `Umar do in hurry without investigation or thorough examinationa Why did both Abu-Bakr and `Umar select the same method of annihilating the records of the Hadith, which is setting them to firea Although the intellectual trend of the majority of the Sahabah was against wiping out the records of the Hadith, the other trend of Ijtihad, having been the executive authority, insisted on its opinion and hence wiped out these records. What for was such belittlement and indifference to the Sahabah's opinions that were congruent to the Holy Prophet's Hadith and conducts as well as the spirit of the Islamic legislationa
The gentle readers will certainly conclude the answers of these questions from the previous as well as the coming narrations. First of all, let us cite the following narration:
Sa`id ibn Jubayr narrated that `Abdullah ibn `Abbas said that the Holy Prophet permitted the temporary marriage. Yet, `Urwah ibn al-Zubayr intruded to say that Abu-Bakr and `Umar prohibited it. Having been very resentful of `Urwah's answer, `Abdullah ibn `Abbas said,
"I see coming that you shall certainly perish! While I say to you that it was the Messenger of Allah who deemed it lawful, you answer me that Abu-Bakr and
1- Ibn Sa`d: al-tabaqat al-Kubra: 5:188; Al-Dhahbiy: Siyar A'lam al-Nubala' 5 :59.
`Umar prohibited it!"(1)
According to another narration narrated by `Abd al-Barr and Ibn Hazm, `Abdullah ibn `Abbas said,
"I am sure that you will not stop such things until you are chastised by Allah! I am reporting to you from the Prophet and you are reporting to me from Abu-Bakr and `Umar!"(2)
According to a third narration, `Abdullah ibn `Abbas said,
"I am reporting to you from the Prophet and you are bringing to me what was said by Abu-Bakr and `Umar!"
According to a fourth narration, `Abdullah ibn `Abbas said,
"I see coming that you shall be inflicted by stones from the heavens!"(3)
Yet, `Urwah answered, "I swear by Allah that Abu-Bakr and `Umar were more knowledgeable than you are as regards the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah."(4)
On this statement, al-Khatib al-Baghdadiy commented,
"`Urwah was right. Yet it is unacceptable to follow anybody in violating what has been authentically proven as said by the Messenger of Allah."(5)
It has been also narrated that `Abdullah, son of `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB, learnt people that Almighty Allah has revealed the temporary marriage and the Holy Prophet passed it. Some objected to him that he was disagreeing with his father. His answer was "You should have followed the Holy Prophet's Sunnah, not `Umar's!"(6)
According to another narration, he answered, "Whose commandment should I followa The Holy Prophet's or my father'sa Indeed, the Holy Prophet did it."(7)
a It has been narrated on the authority of `Abd al-A`la that Zayd ibn Arqam,
1- Al-Jawziy: Zad al-Ma'ad 1:212-213; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 1:327; al-San'aniy: Irshad al-Nuqqad Ila Taysir al-Ijtihad 24-25. 2- Al-Jawziy: Zad al-Ma'ad 1:213; Ibn Hazm al-Andalusiy: Hijjat al-Wada` 1:353; Ibn `Abd al-Barr: al-Tamhid 8:208. 3- Ibn al-Athir, in al-Bidayah wa'l-Nihayah 5:141, has recorded that `Abdullah ibn `Umar, when some people objected to him because he had violated the opinion of his father as regards the temporary marriage, said, "I fear lest a stone from the heavens will inflict you." 4- Al-Jawziy: Zad al-Ma'ad 2:206; Ibn Hazm al-Andalusiy: Hijjat al-Wada` 1:353-354. 5- Al-Khatib al-Baghdadiy: Taqyid al-`Ilm. 6- Sunan al-Tirmidhiy 2:159 H. 823; al-San`aniy: Irshad al-Nuqqad 25; Sunan Ibn Majah 1:214 H. 2978. 7- Al-San'aniy: Irshad al-Nuqqad 25.
while leading a Deceased Prayer, repeated the Takbir (the statement of Allahu Akbar) five times. Hence, Abu-`Isa `Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi-Layla, the official jurisprudent of the State, hurried towards Zayd, took him from the hand, and said, "Have you forgotten (the number of the Takbir)a" "No, I have not," answered Zayd, "I personally followed my dear, the Holy Prophet, in such a prayer when he repeated the Takbir five times only. I therefore shall never leave it."(1)
A similar narration has been narrated from `Isa, the manumitted slave of Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, who confirmed that his master reported to him that the Holy Prophet repeated the Takbir five times only while he was offering a Deceased Prayer.(2)
aWabrah ibn `Abd al-Rahman narrated that a man came to `Abdullah ibn `Umar and asked whether it is valid to circumambulate the Holy Ka`bah while being Muhrim (entering into Ihram: putting the pilgrimage uniform and entering the state of being performing the obligatory rites of the ritual Hajj). "Nothing prevents you from it," answered `Abdullah ibn `Umar. The man added, "We have been told by so-and-so that it is unlawful to do so before the pilgrims' return to the Mawqif. Yet, I do not like that man since you seem to be more pious than he is." Giving details of the question, `Abdullah ibn `Umar answered, "The Messenger of Allah, while being Muhrim, performed a pilgrimage, circumambulated the Holy Ka`bah and roamed between the Safa and Marwa. If you are truthful, you should then follow the practice of Messenger of Allah rather than so-and-so."(3)
He is also reported to have said that the Messenger of Allah instructed not to prevent the bondmaids from offering their prayers in mosques. Yet, one of his sons expressed that they were preventing them from such. This statement made `Abdullah ibn `Umar very angry that he said, "I am reporting to you from the Messenger of Allah and you say that you are preventing!"(4)
According to another narration, `Abdullah ibn `Umar chided him saying, "I
1- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 4:370; Al-tahawiy: Sharh Ma'ani al-athar 1:494 H. 2827. 2- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 4:406 H. 23495; al-tahawiy: Sharh Ma'ani al-athar 1:494 H. 2828; al-Khatib al-Baghdadiy: Tarikh Baghdad 11:142 No. 5840; al-Haythamiy: Majma` al-Zawa'id 3:34. 3- Sahih Muslim 2:905 H. 1233; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 2:56 H. 5194; al-Musnad al-Mustakhraj `Ala Sahih Muslim 3:331 H. 2863; Sunan al-Darimiy 5:224; Muhammad `Ajjaj al-Khatib: al-Sunnah qabl al-Tadwin 90; al-Bayhaqiy: al-Sunan al-Kubra 5:75 H. 9028; Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalaniy: Fath al-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhariy 3:478. 4- Sahih Muslim 1:327 H. 442; Musannaf `Abd al-Razzaq 3:147 H. 5107; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 2:151; Sunan Ibn Majah 1:8 H. 16; Muhammad `Ajjaj al-Khatib: al-Sunnah qabl al-Tadwin 88.
have said that the Messenger of Allah instructed and you insist on violating him!"(1)
aIt has been narrated that `Umar hit Tamim with his rod because he was offering a two-Rak`ah supererogatory prayer although `Umar had warned them against such. Tamim, as having been in the prayer, pointed to `Umar to sit down and `Umar did. When he finished his prayer, Tamim asked `Umar why he had hit him. "You know that I have prohibited you from offering such a prayer," answered `Umar. But Tamim said, "I offered such a prayer while I was with the Messenger of Allah who is certainly superior than you are." `Umar commented, "Well, I have not meant you and your likes; but I anticipate that the coming generations will offer prayers in the period between the `Asr (afternoon) Prayer and the Maghrib (sundown) Prayer passing by the very hour during which the Holy Prophet warned against offering any prayer; hence, they will connect the two obligatory prayers in the same way as they have connected the ²uhr (noon) and `Asr Prayers."(2)
It has been also narrated that Abu-Ayyub al-Ansariy, after the demise of `Umar, returned to offering a supererogatory prayer between the `Asr and Maghrib Prayers after he had stopped during the reign of `Umar. When he was asked about the reason, he answered, "`Umar used to hit with his rod anyone who would offer such a prayer."(3)
aIt has been narrated on the authority of Zayd ibn Thabit that Abu-Bakr, after his campaign against the people of Yamamah, ordered him to allow the alive to inherit their shares from the deads' legacies and to cancel the shares of the deads. `Umar also ordered Zayd to do the same thing with the individuals of the `Amwas tribe whom were plagued.(4)
The abovementioned narrations hint at the points of disagreement among the Sahabah. The majority of such disagreements were in the issues of the Islamic jurisprudence and the secondary rulings of the religion. By the application of his new policy, `Umar wanted all the Sahabah to follow his opinions without
1- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 2:127; Ibn `Abd al-Rabb al-Qurtubiy: Jami`u Bayan al-`Ilm wa-Fadlih(i) 2:195. 2- Al-Haythamiy: Majma' al-Zawa'id 2:222-223; al-tabaraniy: al-Mu`jam al-Awsat 8:296 H. 8684; al-tabaraniy: al-Mu`jam al-Kabir 2:58 H. 1281. 3- `Abd al-Razzaq: al-Musannaf 2:433; al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-'Ummal 11:23 H. 30468; al-Bayhaqiy: al-Sunan al-Kubra 6:222 H. 12030; Ibn Hazm: al-Muhalla 3:3; Ibn `Abd al-Barr: al-Tamhid 13:37. 4- Al-Muttaqiy al-Hindiy: Kanz al-'Ummal 11:25 H. 30479; al-Bayhaqiy: al-Sunan al-Kubra 6:222 H. 12031; Musannaf `Abd al-Razzaq 10:288.
dispute. They therefore rejected that because his opinions were contradictory to what they had witnessed from the Holy Prophet, such as in the case of the Takbir of the Deceased Prayer, the supererogatory prayer between the `Asr and Maghrib Prayers, the temporary marriage… etc. Nevertheless, `Umar, after he had not been able to impose his opinions on them, justified that he did not mean them; rather he meant the coming generations!
The obligation of acting upon the personal verdicts of `Umar was one of the fundamentals of the his new policy; as a result, `Ammar ibn Yasir said to him, "If you wish, I will not tell it to anyone else." Similarly, Ubayy ibn Ka`b loathingly said, "If you want me to confine myself to my house, I will do it and will then never say anything more in this respect."
All such narrations confirm the existence of pressure and threat, which has been manifestly presented in abovementioned narrations, such as `Umar's threatening `Ammar and Abu-Musa with whipping as well as his actual hitting Tamim and Abu-Hurayrah. This threat, too, proves that a clash between the two trends actually occurred during that period.
It is now unfeasible for anyone to deny that `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB did prohibit reporting and recording the Hadith. Similarly, any attempt to arouse doubts around the narrations that reported `Umar's prohibiting the spread of the Hadith and detaining some of the grand Sahabah is refuted by the clear-cut historical events and reports about `Umar's practical and conceptual issues. All such historical texts have supported and confirmed the prohibition of the recordation and reporting of the Hadith and, at the same time, decided as worthless all the justification of Ibn Hazm, al-Dhahbiy, and their likes who claimed that the decision of the prohibition and the detainment of the Sahabah were not compatible to `Umar's psychology and standing!
For more confirmation, let us cite the following example concerning the distribution of the lands in Iraq and Egypt that were conquered by the Muslim warriors by force during the reign of `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB. As has been confirmed by the Holy QUR'AN, one-fifth of such spoils of war must be deposited in the public treasury and then expended on the categories defined by the holy verse,
"And know that whatever thing you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer. 8/41"
The other four-fifths must be distributed among the warriors as is declared in the holy verse and was practiced by the Holy Prophet in Khaybar.
As usual, the warriors came to `Umar asking for distributing the one-fifth and
giving them their shares. Yet, `Umar said, "What shall we say to the other Muslims who will find these lands distributed, inherited, and seizeda This is indeed not accurate!"
`Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf asked, "What is the accurate opinion, thena The lands and the non-Muslims therein are within the spoils of war that Almighty Allah has given exclusively to the warriors."
"This is true, but I do not think so," answered `Umar.
The warriors then talked very much with `Umar about the matter showing that it would not be fair to give the lands that they could occupy by their own swords to others who neither participated nor even saw these lands. Whatever they said, `Umar answered with "This is my opinion!"
Finally, they had to succumb and say, "It is up to you."(1)
Of course, such a furious clash between the Sahabah, about one of the simplest jurisprudential terms, would have never occurred during the Holy Prophet's lifetime where there was an authority to whom all the Muslims would refer as regards any issue. Hence, because the Muslims did not gather around the divinely commissioned authority, their personal opinions and disagreements in the religious affairs increased causing dispute and even fighting. Immediately after the departure of the Holy Prophet, the negative consequences of the Muslims' negligence of the divinely commissioned authorities appeared although the Holy Prophet had warned them against such in many traditions, such as the famous Hadith of Arikah and the other Hadiths of the warning against personal opinions. Imam `Ali and the honest Sahabah not only were depressed for the seizure of the political leadership of the Muslims but also they felt greater pains for the occurrence of such disagreements, separation, and violations of the unity and religious authority of the Muslims. For this very reason, the complaints of Imam `Ali, Anas, `Ammar, and many other Sahabah increased during that period. Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, the keeper of the secret regarding the names of the hypocrites among the companions of the Holy Prophet, warned so sorrowfully against disagreements and contradictions of opinions that occurred after the waste of the actual authority of Islam and the foundation of ungrounded leaderships. In this respect, it has been narrated on the authority of al-Barra' ibn `azib immediately after the departure of the Holy Prophet, Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman, in the presence of al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, `Abadah ibn al-Samit, Salman al-Farisiy, Abu-Dharr, and Abu'l-Haytham ibn al-Tayhan, said,
"I swear by Allah that my prediction shall take place. I have not told lies and I
1- Al-Wafi al-Mahdiy: al-Ijtihad fi'l-Shari'ah al-Islamiyyah 111; Sayid Murtada al-`Askariy: Ma`alim al-Madrasatayn 2:286; al-Madkhal Ila `Ilm al-Usul 90-95.
will not be belied. Those people are intending to restrict the matter (of the leadership) to the Muhajirun. You can ask Ubayy ibn Ka`b about it. He has also have knowledge of this."
They therefore went towards Ubayy's house. As they knocked the door, Ubayy stood behind the door and asked whom it was. Al-Miqdad talked to him, but Ubayy asked him why he had come.
"Open the door! The matter for which I am here is more serious than being discussed through closed doors," said al-Miqdad.
Yet, Ubayy said, "I will not open my door. Now, I know exactly why you are here. You have come asking about the matter of the Meeting (in Saqifah). Have you not?"
"Yes, we have," answered they.
"Is Hudhayfah with youa" asked Ubayy.
"Yes, he is," answered they.
Here, Ubayy said,
"The matter is as exactly as informed by Hudhayfah. I therefore will never open the door of my house until the predicted thing will occur. What will come next will be more catastrophic! I have nothing to do other than complaining about it to Almighty Allah!"(1)
It has been also narrated that Ubayy ibn Ka`b said,
"The parties of that Meeting (of Saqifah) have destroyed themselves. I swear it by the Lord of the Ka`bah. Yet, I am not lamenting over them; rather I lament over the Muslims who shall perish for such."(2)
A third narration reads that Hudhayfah said,
"I will say such a great word about it that I do not care whether you will keep me alive or kill me."(3)
Hence, the following names can be added to the list of the Sahabah who disagreed with `Umar as regards jurisprudential issues:
16) Zayd ibn Arqam,
1- Ahmad ibn `Abd al-Aziz al-Jawhariy: al-Saqifah wa Fadak 46-47; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid: Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah 2:51-2. 2- Abu-Na`im: Hilyat al-Awliya' as quoted from Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 5:140 H. 21301; Musnad al-tayalisiy 1:75 H. 555; Musnad Abu'l-Ju`d 1:197 H. 1291; Musannaf Ibn Abi-Shaybah 7:468 H. 37295. All these reference books have recorded this narration on the authority of Ubayy ibn Ka`b; but Mu`ammar ibn Rashid, in his book of al-Jami` 11:322, has alone recorded it on the authority of Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman. 3- Ibn Sa`d: al-tabaqat al-Kubra 3:501; al-Hakim al-Nisapuriy: al-Mustadrak `Ala'l-Sahihayn 2:229, 303; Ibn `Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq 7:340; al-Muzziy: Tahdhib al-Kamal 2:270; al-Dhahbiy: Siyar A`lam al-Nubala' 1:399.
17) Al-Barra ibn `azib,
18) `Abdullah ibn `Umar,
19) Salman al-Farisiy,
21) Tamim al-Dariy,
22) Al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad,
23) Abu-Dharr al-Ghifariy, and
24) The warriors to whom Almighty Allah has restored (1) among the Sahabah and others.