THE SAHABAH OBJECTING TO OPINIONISM
To be surer about our claim and discussions, more investigation in the situations of the forecited Sahabah is required since it is insufficient to mention a single incident or situation; rather it is necessary to study the general features of those Sahabah's religious and jurisprudential trends. As I examined thoroughly the personalities of those Sahabah, I found that most of them had compiled books or, in other words, the majority of the authors of the first age of Islam disagreed with the Opinionists and the adopters of Ijtihad. In fact, the compilations of those Sahabah acted as frank objections against the policies of `Umar. Let us now refer to those Sahabah in brief:
(1) Imam `Ali ibn Abi-talib (martyred in AH 40)
None can ever deny the fact that Imam `Ali used to write down the Divine Revelations and the dictations of the Holy Prophet. Ummu-Salamah, the Holy Prophet's wife, narrated that Imam `Ali, once, was with the Holy Prophet when the latter asked for a piece of leather (to write on). He then dictated to Imam `Ali who filled the face, back, and even edges of that leather with the Holy Prophet's dictations.(2) As has been confirmed by more than ten of his disciples, Imam `Ali used to keep a paper comprising dictations of the Holy Prophet in the sheath of his sword.(3) Previously, many situations of Imam `Ali's disagreement with the opinions of `Umar have been cited.
1- This is an indication to the holy verse that reads, "Whatever Allah has restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not be a thing taken by turns among the rich of you, and whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is severe in retribution (evil). 59/7" 2- Al-Sam'aniy: al-Imla' wa'l-Istimla' 21 (Mustafa al-A`zamiy: Dirasatun fi'l-Hadith al-Nubawiy 127); al-Muhaddith al-Fasil 601. 3- Abu-Bakr ibn `Abdullah: Ma`rifat al-Nusakh wa'l-Suhuf al-Hadithiyyah 207.
(2) Ubayy ibn Ka`b al-Ansariy (died in AH 22)
Abu'l-`aliyah narrated that Ubayy ibn Ka`b had compiled a big book about the exegesis of the Holy QUR'AN.(1) It has been previously proven that Ubayy disagreed with `Umar and declared that he did not enjoy a distinctive knowledgeability of the religious affairs and that he did not agree to his decision of prohibiting reporting and recording the Hadith.
(3) Mu`adh ibn Jabal (died in AH 18)
When the Holy Prophet sent Mu`adh to the Yemen, he gave him a book in which he dictated the rulings of the alms as well as many Hadiths.(2) Musa ibn talhah kept that book or a copy of it.(3) In addition, Ibn `a'idh kept copies of Mu`adh's books.(4) All these reports prove that Mu`adh ibn Jabal recorded many books that could survive in spite of `Umar's decision of setting all the records to fire after he had prohibited and threatened Mu`adh. Yet, examples on Mu`adh's situations against `Umar have been previously cited.
(4) Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman (died in AH 36)
Examples on Hudhayfah's situations with `Umar have been previously cited, especially his words with `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB in which he said that he hated the right, liked the seductions... etc. Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman used to write down the Holy Prophet's dictations about the alms of dates,(5) the taxes of Hijaz,(6) and the taxes on date-palm trees.(7) Al-Zubayr ibn al-`Awwam was the Holy Prophet's clerk of the alms, but when he would be absent, Jahm ibn al-Salt and Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman would replace him (8) according to the order of the Holy Prophet himself.(9)
(5) `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud al-Hudhaliy (died in AH 32)
Juwaybir has narrated on the authority of al-Dahhak that `Abdullah ibn
1- Muhammad Husayn al-Dhahbiy: al-Tafsir wa'l-Mufassirun 1:115 (Mustafa al-A`zamiy: Dirasatun fi'l-Hadith al-Nubawiy 100). 2- Ibn Husham: al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah 8862, 956; Abu-Na`im: Hilyat al-Awliya' 1:240; Abu-'Ubayd: al-Amwal 27, 37. 3- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 5:228 H. 22041; Sunan al-Darqutniy 2:96 H. 8. 4- Dr. Imtiyaz Ahmad: Dala'il al-Tawthiq al-Mubakkir li'l-Kitab wa'l-Sunnah (Evidences on the early documentation of the Holy QUR'AN and Sunnah) 418; al-Muhaddith al-Fasil 498. 5- Al-Taratib al-Idariyyah 1:398. 6- Al-Tanbih wa'l-Ishraf 245; Ibn `Abd-Rabbih: al-`Iqd al-Farid 4:147. 7- Al-Taratib al-Idariyyah 1:124; Subh al-A`sha 1:125. 8- Makatib al-Rasul 1:177 as quoted from Ibn Hazm's Jawami` al-Siyar. 9- Subul al-Huda wa'l-Rashad 11:381. The administrative structure of the Holy Prophet's governmental system reveals that it was the Holy Prophet, not `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB, who founded the offices (Diwans).
Mas`ud said: "During the age of the Messenger of Allah, we used to record nothing of the Hadith except those appertained to the Tashahhud (a major section of the obligatory prayer) and Istikharah (Seeking goodness from Almighty Allah).(1) It has been also narrated on the authority of Ma`an that `Abd al-Rahman, son of `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud, showed him a book and swore that it had been written by his father personally.(2)
Yet, it has been narrated that `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud prohibited the recordation of the Hadith. This is in reality a fabrication and is refuted by the aforesaid reports, as well as many others, and by the fact that he was detained by `Umar for his having violated the decision of prohibiting reporting and recording the Hadith. Other narrations have affirmed that `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud erased the contents of some papers that comprised narrations. On the assumption that these narrations are authentic, it is possible that these papers comprised narrations of the Jews and Christians, as has been previously proven.(3)
It has been also narrated that `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud disagreed with `Umar on many issues or, as is quoted from Ibn al-Qayyim, on one hundred questions.(4) This fact proves that he joined the group of the thorough compliance with the sacred texts and proves the falsehood of the narration reporting his having said,
"If all the people enter upon a certain path but `Umar enters upon another, I will surely take the path of `Umar!"(5)
(6) `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf (died in AH 31)
Later on, we will discuss in details the role that `Abd al-Rahman played in sketching the conducts of Abu-Bakr and `Umar and his standing in the view of `Umar in particular. Yet, nothing has been reported from him concerning the recordation of the Hadith.
(7) Abu-`Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah
This man died before the caliphate of `Umar and did not record any book.
(8) Zayd ibn Thabit (died in AH 45)
It has been narrated that Zayd was the first to compile a book about the
1- Ahmad ibn Hanbal: al-'Ilal wa Ma`rifat al-Rijal 1:323; Ibn Abi-Shaybah: al-Musannaf 45. 2- Ibn `Abd al-Barr al-Qurtubiy: Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm wa Fadlih 1:72. 3- It seems that `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud erased the al-Sahifah al-Yamaniyyah out fear of the ruling authorities and because he believed that dispute is evil. He had done the very same thing when he offered the prayer at Mina. 4- Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyyah: A'lam al-Muwaqqi'in 2:218. 5- Ibn Abi-Shaybah: al-Musannaf 1:100; Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyyah: A'lam al-Muwaqqi'in 1:20.
rulings of inheritance. Ja`far ibn Burqan narrated that he had heard al-Zuhriy saying,
"Unless Zayd ibn Thabit compiled a book on the rulings of heritage, they would be unknown by the people."(1)
Zayd, however, disagreed with `Umar on the issues of the share of grandmothers (from the heritage), the retaliation of Muslims who kill Dhimmis, and other issues.
(9) `Abdullah ibn `Abbas (died in AH 68)
It has been reported from Salma that she saw `Abdullah ibn `Abbas carrying tablets that comprised the writings of Ibn Abi-Rafi' about some of the Holy Prophet's deeds.(2) It has been also narrated that he left numerous books after his demise.(3) Many narrations have been reported from him confirming the necessity of recording knowledge.(4) Yet, the narration of tawus that `Abdullah ibn `Abbas disliked recording the knowledge requires thorough investigation because it opposes many other narrations. Previously, we have cited his disagreement with `Umar regarding the issue of the lady that became pregnant only six months after her marriage.
(10) Al-Dahhak ibn Sufyan al-Kilabiy
The Holy Prophet wrote a message to al-Dahhak instructing him to give the widow of Ashyam al-Dibabiy her due from the legacy of her husband. Al-Dahhak, then, sent a message to `Umar telling him about the contents of that message.(6)
(11) Shaybah ibn `Uthman al-`Abdariy (died in AH 57)
Al-Muzziy, in Tahdhib al-Kamal 12:604, has written the biography of Shaybah without mentioning that he had compiled a book. Yet, he referred to the aforementioned narration concerning his disagreement with `Umar on the issue of the fortune of the Holy Ka`bah.
(12) A woman that found fault with `Umar
It is probable that this woman was Fatimah bint Qays, al-Dahhak's elder
1- Al-Dhahbiy: Siyar A'lam al-Nubala' 2:312; Ibn `Asakir: Tarikh Madinat Dimashq 5:448; al-Bayhaqiy: al-Sunan al-Kubra 6:21 H. 11966. 2- Ibn Sa`d: al-tabaqat al-Kubra 2:123 (Mustafa al-A`zamiy: Dirasatun fi'l-Hadith al-Nubawiy 116). 3- Ibn Sa`d: al-tabaqat al-Kubra 5:216; al-Khatib al-Baghdadiy: Taqyid al-`Ilm 136 (Mustafa al-A`zamiy: Dirasatun fi'l-Hadith al-Nubawiy 116). 4- Al-Khatib al-Baghdadiy: Taqyid al-`Ilm 92; Ahmad ibn Hanbal: al-'Ilal wa Ma`rifat al-Rijal 1:42; Abu-Khaythamah: al-'Ilm 124 (Mustafa al-A`zamiy: Dirasatun fi'l-Hadith al-Nubawiy 117). 5- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 3:452; al-Shafi`iy: al-Risalah; Jamal al-Din al-Muzziy: Tahdhib al-Kamal 13:262. 6- Sunan Ibn Majah 12 H. 2642; Sunan Abi-Dawud H. 2927; Sunan al-Tirmidhiy H. 1415.
sister, about whom Abu-Salamah reported some narrations. Muhammad ibn `Amr narrated that Abu-Salamah reported that Fatimah bint Qays compiled a book in which she related her story…(1) According to one of her narrations, `Umar said to her, "We should not neglect the Book of our Lord and the Sunnah of our Prophet because of a statement said by a woman whom we cannot tell whether she is honest or not!"
(13) `Ammar ibn Yasir (martyred during the Battle of Siffin)
`Ammar is one of the excellent and grand Sahabah. Having been one of the adherents to Imam `Ali, he was martyred during the Battle of Siffin. The Holy Prophet predicted his martyrdom at the hands of the despotic party.
Although any compilation of `Ammar cannot be found, he joined the school of reporting the Hadith since he, in the issuance of religious verdicts, thoroughly complied with the sacred texts, he objected to the caliphs' adoptions of personal views and imitated the jurisprudential course of Imam `Ali.
(14) Abu-Musa al-Ash`ariy (died in AH 42)
It has been narrated that Abu-Musa al-Ash`ariy, replying to the message of `Abdullah ibn `Abbas, wrote that the Holy Prophet used to… etc.(2) Abu-Zayd Bakr ibn `Abdullah said, "The Shahid `Ali Library in Turkey keeps a manuscript compiled by Abu-Musa al-Ash`ariy."(3) It has been also narrated that he defended the recordation of the Holy Sunnah. Later on, we will discuss in details the jurisprudential course of Abu-Musa to prove whether he backed the Opinionists or the compliers with the sacred texts.
(15) Sa`d ibn Malik; Abu-Sa`id al-Khidriy (died in AH 74)
Abu-Sa`id is reported as saying, "Except the Holy QUR'AN and Hadiths concerning the Tashahhud, we used not to record anything."(4) al-A`zamiy says: "It is probable that Abu-Sa`id wrote down some of the Hadiths for `Abdullah ibn `Abbas." Yet, these reports are contradictory to the narration that Abu-Sa`id reported the Holy Prophet's saying: "Do not record anything of my words and deeds. Now, anyone who has recorded anything other than the
1- Sahih Muslim 39:1114, 21:1; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 6:413; Ibn Sa`d: al-tabaqat al-Kubra 8:200. 2- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 4:396 H. 414; Jami' al-Usul 8:47; al-Bayhaqiy: al-Sunan al-Kubra 1:93; Sunan Abi-Dawud 1:1 H. 3. 3- Abu-Bakr ibn `Abdullah: Ma`rifat al-Nusakh wa'l-Suhuf al-Hadithiyyah 182. 4- Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Imarah (Leadership) 10, Kitab al-Fada'il (Merits) 45; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 5:89.
QUR'AN must erase it."(1)
(16) Zayd ibn Arqam (died in AH 66)
Zayd recorded some of the Hadith and sent them to Anas ibn Malik, such as the Holy Prophet's praying to Almighty Allah to forgive the Ansar and their descendants.(2) He also objected to some of `Umar's verdicts and narrated too much about the merits of Imam `Ali.
(17) Al-Barra ibn `azib (died in AH 72)
Muhammad `Ajjaj al-Khatib has recorded that al-Barra ibn `azib used to report and record the Hadith.(3) It has been also narrated from Waki` on the authority of his father that `Abdullah ibn Hanash said that he had seen them (seekers of knowledge) recording al-Barra''s lectures on the palms of their hands using canes.(4) Besides, al-Barra' narrated numerous traditions about the merits of Imam `Ali. Yet, his situation concerning the meeting of Saqifah has been previously cited.
(18) `Abdullah ibn `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB (died in AH 74)
It has been narrated that `Abdullah used to record the Hadith. Ibrahim al-Sa'igh narrated on the authority of Nafi` that `Abdullah ibn `Umar kept many books which he used to read.(5) Later on, we will discuss `Abdullah's situation against his father and arguments about the necessity of the thorough compliance with the sacred texts, although he himself violated this trend on definite occasions.
(19) Salman al-Farisiy (died in AH 32)
Ibn Shahrashub has recorded that Imam `Ali followed by Salman al-Farisiy were the first to compile books in Islam.(6) About Salman, Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr says, "He recorded the conversation the Roman Catholicos whom were sent by
1- Al-Khatib al-Baghdadiy: Taqyid al-`Ilm 29-32; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 3:12-21; Sahih Muslim, Kitab al-Zuhd (Asceticism) 72; Ahmad ibn Hanbal: al-'Ilal wa Ma`rifat al-Rijal (Mustafa al-A`zamiy: Dirasatun fi'l-Hadith al-Nubawiy). 2- Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal 4:370-374; Sunan al-Tirmidhiy 2:230; Jamal al-Din al-Muzziy: Tahdhib al-Kamal, 3:394 (Mustafa al-A`zamiy: Dirasatun fi'l-Hadith al-Nubawiy 107). 3- Muhammad `Ajjaj al-Khatib: al-Sunnah qabl al-Tadwin 320. 4- Ibn `Abd al-Rabb al-Qurtubiy: Jami`u Bayan al-`Ilm wa-Fadlih(i) 1:73; al-Khatib al-Baghdadiy: Taqyid al-`Ilm 105; Sunan al-Darimiy 1:128; Abu-Khaythamah: al-'Ilm; Ahmad ibn Hanbal: al-'Ilal wa Ma`rifat al-Rijal 1:42. 5- Al-Bukhariy: al-Tarikh al-Kabir 1:3201; al-Dhahbiy: Siyar A'lam al-Nubala' 3:160 (Mustafa al-A`zamiy: Dirasatun fi'l-Hadith al-Nubawiy 120). 6- Ibn Shahrashib: Ma'alim al-'Ulama' as quoted from Sayyid Sharafuddin: al-Muraja'at No. 110.
Caesar after the Holy Prophet's departure."(1) al-A`zamiy has also recorded that Salman seemed to write some of the Hadiths for Abu'l-Darda'.(2) Ahmad ibn Hanbal, in al-Musnad, has recorded a number of narrations reported by Salman indicating that he followed the trend of the thorough compliance with the sacred texts. As a matter of fact, a deep look in the life account of Salman demonstrates that he was one of the chief adopters of the School of Through Compliance with the Sacred Texts. This is not strange, since he was, in the words of the Holy Prophet, one of the Ahl al-Bayt in honor, not reality.(3)
(20) Abu-Hurayrah al-Dusiy (died in AH 59)
Al-Fadl ibn Hasan ibn `Umar ibn Umayyah al-Dumayri has narrated that his father said that Abu-Hurayrah denied a Hadith after he had heard from him. Yet, his father said, "I have heard this Hadith from you personally!" Abu-Hurayrah replied, "If you have heard this Hadith from me, this means that it is written with me."(4) Generally, some of Abu-Hurayrah's statements indicate that he followed the trend of the thorough compliance with the sacred texts and others indicate that he supported the Opinionists.
(21) Tamim al-Dariy
Previously, Tamim's objection to `Umar's having prohibited him to offer a prayer after the `Asr (obligatory) Prayer has been cited.
(22) Al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad
Al-Miqdad has not been reported as having compiled or recorded the religious knowledge. Yet, he is well-known for his following Imam `Ali in everything. He must thus have been following the trend of the thorough compliance with the sacred texts.
(23) Abu-Dharr al-Ghifariy
Ibn Shahrashub has added Abu-Dharr's name to the list of the foremost compilers in Islam.(5) It is also well-known for everybody that Abu-Dharr disagreed with the Opinionists and the ruling authorities in general and
1- Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr: Ta'sis al-Shi'ah li-'Ulum al-Islam (The Shi`ah: the Founders of the Islamic Sciences) 280 as quoted from Shaykh al-tusiy: al-Fihrist. 2- Ibn `Abd al-Rabb al-Qurtubiy: Jami`u Bayan al-`Ilm wa-Fadlih(i) 1:74; Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalaniy: Fath al-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhariy 1:215; al-Hakim: al-Mustadrak `Ala'l-Sahihayn 3:511; Ibn Wahab: al-Musnad 66; Ahmad ibn Hanbal: al-'Ilal wa Ma`rifat al-Rijal 120 (Mustafa al-A`zamiy: Dirasatun fi'l-Hadith al-Nubawiy 96). 3- It has been narrated that the Holy Prophet said, "Salman (al-Farisiy) is one of us; the Ahl al-Bayt." This Hadith is too famous to need documentation. 4- Ibn `Abd al-Rabb al-Qurtubiy: Jami`u Bayan al-`Ilm wa-Fadlih(i) 1:74; Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalaniy: Fath al-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhariy 1:215; al-Hakim: al-Mustadrak `Ala'l-Sahihayn 3:511. 5- Ibn Shahrashib: Ma'alim al-'Ulama' 1.
`Uthman ibn `Affan in particular. Besides, he was one of the sincere disciples of Imam `Ali.
On the strength of the previous simple inventory, we conclude that the Sahabah who objected to the Opinionists were either the compilers of the Islamic knowledge or the disciples of Imam `Ali who participated in his campaigns.(1) As regards the earlier, the compilers of books on the Islamic knowledge are those who thoroughly complied with the sacred texts. They are also not reported to have narrated any item revealing the prohibition of reporting and recording the Hadith. Rather, the Sahabah who thoroughly complied with the sacred texts encouraged on reporting and recording the Hadith. They thus disagreed with the other party whose members practiced Ijtihad and prohibited the reporting, writing down, and recording of the Holy Sunnah. In other words, there is inherence between the recording of the Hadith and the thorough compliance with the sacred texts. Similarly, there is inherence between the prohibition from recording the Hadith and the practice of Ijtihad and Opinionism. For instance, `Ammar ibn Yasir followed the School of Thorough Compliance with the Sacred Texts, as will be proven in the coming chapters, although he did not write down any book in the field of the religious knowledge. On the other side, `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB and Zayd ibn Thabit followed the School of Ijtihad and Opinionism although they did write down some books. However, ponderation over their books proves that these books comprised nothing more than their personal views and opinions and that all the narration mentioned therein supported their trend. As a result, the compilers of books on Islamic knowledge are those who followed the School of Thorough Compliance with the Sacred Texts.
The following points can also be concluded in this respect:
(1) The claim that the Holy Prophet had prohibited from recording his traditions is unsubstantiated.
(2) The recordation of the items of knowledge started during the Holy Prophet's lifetime and under his commandment. This trend then extended with the Sahabah who believed in the sacredness of the texts of the Holy QUR'AN and Sunnah.
(3) During the reign of `Umar, there were records comprising the Holy Prophet's Hadith. From this cause, he ordered such records to be brought
1- Later on, we will add the jurisprudence of the Ansar to prove that the trend of the thorough compliance to the sacred texts included these three categories in general.
(4) The prohibition of recording the Hadith was issued during the reigns of Abu-Bakr and `Umar and under their commandment. Thus, the decision did not acquire any legitimacy from the Holy Prophet's texts.
In this regard, al-Mu`allimiy says:
"Had the Holy Prophet prohibited the recordation of the Hadith, Abu-Bakr would not have recorded some Hadiths and, likewise, `Umar would not have had the intention to record, too."(1)
Since the records of the Hadith were available, why did `Umar have an aversion to spread them and why did he declare that the Book of Allah was sufficienta Similarly, why have Ibn Hazm and his likes found it improbable for `Umar to detain some of the Sahabah?
To answer these questions, we say that the reporting and recordation of the Hadith were the basic barriers against the acceptability of the personal opinions of Abu-Bakr and `Umar. Hence, the first step on their course of the adoption of personal opinions was directing the people to depend upon the Holy QUR'AN alone, reduce reporting the Hadith, and stop recording it. Such directions created a huge gap between ordinary people and their Prophet's traditions and paved the way for the new substitute, which was the Ijtihad of the Sahabah. The following step was therefore the presentation of the Ijtihad as the substitute of the Hadith.
As a matter of fact, the Holy Prophet anticipated openly the imminent happening of such and declared his displeasure with it as he confirmed that his words are as sacred as Almighty Allah's Words.
In the conception of `Umar, the prohibition of spreading the Hadith was a social necessity imposed upon him by the surrounding circumstances. It was tantamount to the reaction of his ignorance with the Holy Prophet's traditions as well as the reminiscence that he had kept in his mind when the Holy Prophet prohibited him from recording the distorted heritage of the Christians and Jews when he had written sections from the distorted Torah.
By the prohibition of recording the Hadith, `Umar only wanted to apply the Holy Prophet's prohibition from recording the heritage of the Ahl al-Kitab. Yet, the difference between the two is totally clear. Finally, had Abu-Bakr and `Umar recognized the instructions of the Holy Prophet, they would not have violated his orders and invented contradictory courses.
1- Sayyid Muhammad Rida al-Jalaliy: Tadwin al-Sunnah al-Sharifah 264, 273 as quoted from al-Mu`allimiy: al-Anwar al-Kashifah 38.