671

THE PROHIBITION OF RECORDING THE HADITH

CAUSES AND EFFECTS

A Glance at the Methodologies and Principles
of the Two Muslim Schools of Hadith

BY: SAYYID ALI AL-SHAHRISTANI
Translated By: Badr Shahin


TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION 4

PREFACE 13

INTRODUCTION 15

REASONS FOR THE PROHIBITION 21

FIRST REASON: JUSTIFICATIONS OF ABUBAKR 23

THE HADITH OF ARIKAH (THE COUCH) 36

WHICH DECISION PRECEDED THE OTHER? 38

SECOND REASON: JUSTIFICATIONS OF `UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB 41

THIRD REASON: JUSTIFICATIONS OF IBN QUTAYBAH AND IBN HAJAR 47

FOURTH REASON: JUSTIFICATIONS OF ABU-ZAHW AND `ABD AL-GHANIY 51

FIFTH REASON: JUSTIFICATIONS OF AL-KHATIB AL-BAGHDaDIY AND IBN `ABD AL-BARR 56

SIXTH REASON: JUSTIFICATIONS OF SOME ORIENTALISTS 61

SEVENTH REASON: JUSTIFICATIONS OF MOST OF THE SHI`AH 63

OBJECTIONS TO THE JUSTIFICATION 64

REPORTS OF `ABDULLaH IBN MAS`UD'S PROHIBITING THE RECORDATION OF THE HADITH 81

THE LAST REASON: THE AUTHOR'S OPINION 95

FIRST FACTOR 95

SECOND FACTOR 96

THIRD FACTOR 97

FOURTH FACTOR 97

FIRST INTRODUCTION: THE RISE OF IJTIHAD 99

THE SITUATIONS OF ABU-BAKR AND `UMAR TOWARDS THE TWO GROUPS 104

ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION 123

TWO MORE JUSTIFICATIONS 130

SUMMARY 134

SECOND INTRODUCTION 135

`UMAR AND THE SAHABAH 141

(1) MU`ADH IBN JABAL 141

(2) ZAYD IBN THABIT 141

(3) ABU'UBAYDAH IBN AL-JARRAH 142

(4) HUDHAYFAH IBN AL-YAMAN 142

(5) `ABDULLAH IBN MAS`UD 143

(6) UBAYY IBN KA`B 144

(7) AL-DAHHAK IBN SUFYAN AL-KILABIY 144

(8) SHAYBAH IBN `UTHMAN 145

(9) `ABDULLAH IBN `ABBAS 145

(10) `ALI IBN ABI-TALIB 145

(11) `ABD AL-RAHMAN IBN `Awf 146

CONTINUATION OF THE TWO TRENDS AFTER THE HOLY PROPHET CRISIS AND SOLUTION 149

A PERSPECTIVE ON THE MATTER 165

THE SAHABAH'S LEARNING FROM THE HOLY PROPHET 167

THE IDENTIFICATION OF ADVANTAGE AND THE SACRED TEXTS 173

ITEMS OF IJTIHAD 182

MODELS OF THE PERPETUITY OF THE TWO TRENDS 191

THE SAHABAH OBJECTING TO OPINIONISM 198

(1) Imam `Ali ibn Abi-talib (martyred in AH 40) 198

(2) Ubayy ibn Ka`b al-Ansariy (died in AH 22) 199

(3) Mu`adh ibn Jabal (died in AH 18) 199

(4) Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman (died in AH 36) 199

(5) `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud al-Hudhaliy (died in AH 32) 199

(6) `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf (died in AH 31) 200

(7) Abu-`Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah 200

(8) Zayd ibn Thabit (died in AH 45) 200

(9) `Abdullah ibn `Abbas (died in AH 68) 201

(10) Al-Dahhak ibn Sufyan al-Kilabiy 201

(11) Shaybah ibn `Uthman al-`Abdariy (died in AH 57) 201

(12) A woman that found fault with `Umar 201

(13) `Ammar ibn Yasir (martyred during the Battle of Siffin) 202

(14) Abu-Musa al-Ash`ariy (died in AH 42) 202

(15) Sa`d ibn Malik; Abu-Sa`id al-Khidriy (died in AH 74) 202

(16) Zayd ibn Arqam (died in AH 66) 203

(17) Al-Barra ibn `azib (died in AH 72) 203

(18) `Abdullah ibn `Umar ibn al-KHATTAB (died in AH 74) 203

(19) Salman al-Farisiy (died in AH 32) 203

(20) Abu-Hurayrah al-Dusiy (died in AH 59) 204

(21) Tamim al-Dariy 204

(22) Al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad 204

(23) Abu-Dharr al-Ghifariy 204

CONCLUSIONS 205

DETAINMENT OF THE REPORTERS OF HADITH 207

CONFLICTING OPINIONS 209

THE CLAIM OF THE HOLY PROPHET'S ADOPTION OF PERSONAL OPINIONS 213

THE SAHABAH'S FREQUENT INQUIRIES TO THE CALIPH 220

INFLUENCE OF OPINIONISM ON MUSLIM JURISPRUDENCE 222

ACQUIESCENCE WITH `UMAR ON THE JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROHIBITION 229

THE AHL AL-BAYT'S ATTITUDE TO THE TREND OF IJTIHAD 235

INTERPRETATIONS AND OPINIONS 239

PLURALITY OR UNITY 242

IBN QAYYIM AL-JAWZIYYAH'S OPINION 248

THE BOOK OF ALLAH IS SUFFICIENT FOR US! 250

VIEWS ABOUT OPINIONISM 255

DEVELOPMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS 262

BACK TO THE MAIN TOPIC 263

EXPOSITION OF IMAM `ALI 265

CONFIRMATION 270

PERSONALITIES OF IJTIHAD AND CALIPHATE 274

`ABDULLAH IBN `UMAR DISAGREES WITH HIS FATHER 282

THE EXTENSION OF THE TWO TRENDS AFTER `UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB 291

JOINING the HAJJ TO THE `UMRAH 292

NEGLECT OF QIRA'AH 294

RULING OF WIVES OF THE LOST 294

THE ONE-SIXTH SHARE OF MOTHERS 295

ZAKAT OF HORSES 295

THE KALALAH 296

FADAK 297

THE KHUMS 299

THE PERPETUITY OF OPINIONISM AND IJTIHAD DURING THE REIGN OF MU`AWIYAH 301

DISCOURSE OF IBN QAYYIM ABOUT TEMPORARY MARRIAGE 306

REMARK 308

THE RULERS AND THE JURISPRUDENTIAL NORMALIZATION 313

PRACTICAL EXAMPLES ON THE SAHABAH'S VIOLATION OF THE HADITH 324

First Example 325

Second Example 327

Third Example 329

CONCLUSION 331

SIGNIFICANT ITEMS 337

`UMAR IBN `ABD AL-`AZIZ AND THE PROHIBITION OF RECORDING THE HADITH 340

WONDERMENTS AND IRONY 345

THE AHL AL-BAYT AND THE CIRCULATING SUNNAH 347

ANTICIPATION AND CONSOLIDATION 359

`UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB AND THE UMAYYADS 368

ACCEPTABILITY OF THE SAHABAH'S SAYINGS 371

CONCLUSION 379

FIRST STAGE 379

SECOND STAGE 382

First Text 384

Second Text 388

THIRD STAGE 392

SUMMARY OF THE LAST REASON 399

FIRST PRESENTATION 399

SECOND PRESENTATION 401

THIRD PRESENTATION 402

FOURTH PRESENTATION 404

FIFTH PRESENTATION 405

SIXTH PRESENTATION 406

STAGES OF THE PROHIBITION OF RECORDING THE HADITH 409

(1) THE HADITH CIRCULATED INCREASINGLY 409

(2) ABUBAKR PROHIBITED THE REPORTING AND SET FIRE TO HIS BOOK OF HADITH 410

(3) `UMAR ORDERED THE SAHABAH TO REDUCE REPORTING THE HADITH 410

(4) `UMAR COLLECTED AND SET FIRE TO THE SAHABAH'S RECORDS OF HADITH 410

(5) `UMAR DETAINED SOME OF THE SAHABAH AND ORDERED THE ALL TO STOP REPORTING AND RECORDING THE HADITH 412

(6) THE TWO CALIPHS RESTRICTED THE RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS TO THE HOLY QUR'AN 413

(7) `UMAR ALLOWED THE SAHABAH TO PRACTICE IJTIHAD AND ACT UPON ANALOGY 413

(8) `UMAR ATTEMPTED TO RESTRICT THE IJTIHAD 413

GENERAL SUMMARY 414

FIRST ISSUE 414

SECOND ISSUE 420

IMAM `ALI'S ATTITUDE 423

INDICATIONS 426

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TWO TRENDS 430

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE TWO TRENDS DURING THE UMAYYAD REIGN 433

THE CALIPHS AND THE RECORDATION OF HADITH 433

THE AHL AL-BAYT AND THE RECORDATION OF HADITH 444

THE BOOK OF `ALI AGAIN 448

IMAM `ALI IBN ABI-TALIB 452

FATIMAH AL-ZAHRA'; DAUGHTER OF THE HOLY PROPHET 457

IMAM AL-HASAN IBN `ALI AL-MUJTABA 458

IMAM AL-HUSAYN IBN `ALI, THE MARTYR 459

IMAM `ALI IBN AL-HUSAYN AL-SAJJAD 461

IMAM MUHAMMAD IBN `ALI AL-BAQIR 464

IMAM JA`FAR IBN MUHAMMAD AL-SADIQ 469

IMAM MUSA AL-KAZIM 473

REMARK 478

IMAM `ALI IBN MUSA AL-RIDA 484

IMAM MUHAMMAD IBN `ALI AL-JAWaD 488

IMAM `ALI IBN MUHAMMAD AL-HADI 490

IMAM AL-HASAN IBN `ALI AL-`ASKARIY 492

IMAM MUHAMMAD IBN AL-HASAN AL-MAHDI 495

THE FOUR HUNDRED PRINCIPLES (AL-USUL AL-ARBA`MI'AH) 500

THE SHIAH DERIVE FROM THE USUL 506

BIOGRAPHY OF THE COMPILERS OF THE AL-KUTUB AL-ARBA`AH 512

PRACTICAL EXAMPLES ON THE JURISPRUDENTIAL METHODS OF THE TWO TRENDS 518

(1) LAWS OF INHERITANCE 519

(2) A QUESTION ABOUT GAME 522

(3) THE PENALTY OF DRINKING INTOXICANTS AND WINES 524

(4) THE BLOOD MONEY FOR TEETH 530

MOTIVES OF DISTORTION AND DEVIATION FOR BOTH THE TRENDS 536

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO SCHOOLS 543

First Difference 543

Second Difference 544

Third Difference 547

Fourth Difference 551

Fifth Difference 551

Sixth Difference 552

Seventh Difference 552

THE EFFECTS OF THE PROHIBITION OF RECORDING THE HADITH 555

EPILOGUE 563

BIBLIOGRAPHY 565