The Conception of the
Sahaba's Ultimate Decency
And the
Political Authority in Islam

By: Ahmed Hussein Ya'qub
Translated by A Group of Translators
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications - Qum
Printer: sadr
First Edition 1999 - 1420
Copies: 2000
ISBN: 964-438-091-6

ANSARIYAN PUBLICATIONS
22, Shohada St.,
P.O. Box 187 – Qum
Islamic Republic Of Iran
Tel: ++ 98 251 7741744
Fax:++ 98 251 7742647

 

5

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Part 1 — Chapter 1
  • 1. the Lexical Meaning of Sahaba

    A. in Lexicons

    B. in the Holy Quran

    C. Induce the Quranic Verses for Providing for the Lexical Meaning

    D. Lexical Aspects of the Idiom

    2. Terminological Meaning of Sahaba

    A. An Explanation of bn­Hajar's Definition

    B. bn­Hajar's Estimation of this Definition

    C. Means of Recognizing the Sahaba

    D. The Entire People are Sahaba

  • Chapter 2 — Sunnis' Conception of the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency

    The Sunni Scholars’ Argument Regarding this Conception

    Tenor of Sunnis' Conception of the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency

    Punition of Dissents of the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception

    The Mystery Beyond Such An Extreme Harshness

    Recall

    An Attempt for Mitigating Such A Hyperbole

    Denying and Eradicating this Attempt

    Effects of this Opinion of Generalization

    Wonderment and End Result

    Criticism of the Conception

    Unanimity and Discrepancy

    An Endeavor for Reconciling

    The Benefit of Such A Classification

    Discrimination is A Divine Norm

    Evidence of Legal Discrimination

    Classes of Sahaba

    Classification Of The Sahaba As Posited By Al­Hakam In His Al­Mustedrak

    Approach of Discrimination in Islam

    Pillars Of Discrimination And Courses Of Decency

    Estimating the Criteria

    Wonderment

  • Chapter 3 — Outward Refutation of the Conception
  • First Face: Admission and Witnesses

    Second Face

    Prefatory Perusal

    1st — Confusion

    2nd — Suggestive Words

    3rd — Protection and Covering Up

    A Topical Refutation of the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception

    The Wonder of Wonders

    Aspect of Annulment

    Expatiating and Proving Aspects of Annulment

    I. the Conception Opposes Categorical Quranic Texts

    Manifestation Of Hypocrisy

    Categorical Divine Judgment

    Examples Of Contradiction Between The Holy Quran And The Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception

    Explication of the 3 Examples

    1. God's Judgment In The Three Individuals

    2. Sunnis' Judgment Respecting The Three

    2 The Conception Opposes the Prophet's Traditions — 6 Examples

    A Solicitation To Scrutinizing The 6 Examples

    3 The Conception is Contradictory to Actuality — 7 Examples

    Explication Of The 7 Examples

    4 The Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception Opposes the General Spirit of Islam, Concept of the Unforeseen End Result and Concept of Cause Finale.

    Explication of the Above Texts

    Incoherence of the Conception

    Remarks

    The Sahaba's Role in Legislation

  • Chapter 4 — the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception At Shias

    1. Shias' acceding to the Sahaba:

    2. for Shias, Who are the Sahaba?

    3. The Basic Difference Point

    4. Shias' Supplication for Mohammed's Companions

    The Most Well Memorized Supplication of the Shiite

  • Chapter 5 — Grounds of Consideration of Sahaba
  • Bn­Abbas describes the Sahaba before Muawiya

    The Will of Hutheifeh­bn­Al­Yeman, the Sahabi

    Az­Zubeir and the End Result

    Talha and the End Result

    Confederates Kill Each Other

    Ammar­bn­Yasir's Satisfactory End Result

    Muawiya's Argument

    Muawiya Penalizes Othman's Assassinators

    Al­Hassan Al­Basri's Impression on Muawiya

    Muawiya's Zenith of Glories

    Muawiya's Officials Revile At Ali

  • Chapter 6 — The Right Course to Recognizing the Decent Sahaba
  • Topical Introductory

    Inspecting the 2 supplications

    A wonderment

    Prospects

    Explication

    The solving method

    Obstructions Of The Solving Methods

    Conclusive Judgment of the Sahaba's Decency — Recall and Abstract of the Views of Sunnis and Shias 

    Confusion

    An Event for the Shariite Disclosure

    The Entire Sahaba's Decency

    Logical Characterization

    Wonderment

    Abstract

    Submission to the Authority Nominated By the Prophet is the Clue to Decency.

    The Decent Sahaba

    Models of the Sluggish Iraqi and Syrian Individuals

    Those Who Complied to Muawiya

  • Part 2 — Chapter 1— The Tribal Root — The Impermissibility to Combine Caliphate and Prophesy
  • A. the Clans of Quraish

    B. the Political Form

    C. Endeavors for Shaking the Form

    D. the Augury of Prophesy

    E. the Declaration of Prophesy

    F. the Hashimites' Guarding Mohammed

    G. Not for the Favor of the Pagans, It Was Envy, and Preserving the Political Form

    H. Not for the Favor of the Pagans, the Wars Were Due to Envy and Preserving the Political Form

    I. the Hashemite Prophesy is An Inescapable Fate

    J. the most enthusiast clan towards occluding the Hashemite advancement

    K. The Preeminent Trend

    L. The Immaculate Kinship is the Statutory Base of Caliphate

    M. The Rebellion and the Dissipation of the Preeminent Trend

    The literal quotation of this narrative

    N. Statutory Ground of Intercepting the Hashemites from Joining Headship to Prophesy Conception

    O. Effects of Practicing the Conception of Intercepting the Hashemites from Joining Headship to Prophesy 

    The First Effect

    The Second Effect

    The Third Effect

    The Fourth Effect

  • Chapter 2 — Political Roots of the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception

    Islamic political system

    A. Contradiction Between Idealism and Reality

    B. the Islamic Political System

    C. Pillars of the Islamic Political System

    1st Pillar — Political Leadership

    Purpose Of The Divine Election For Political Leadership

    2nd Pillar — Organic Relationship Between Divine Doctrine And Selected Leaders

    3rd Pillar — The Divine Jurisprudential Formulation

    4th Pillar — The Commonalty's Contentment

    Simplicity of the Islamic System

    Political Circumstances of Inventing the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception

    Disregarding the Announced Goal for Dissenting the Legality

    Renaissance After Inadvertence

    Hypotheses Serving the Factuality

  • Chapter 3 — Purpose of Inventing the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception

    1. Substantiation

    2. Immunity Against Criticism, Maligning, Reviling and Imputing Dishonor

    3. Confronting Rivals of Muawiya and His Faction

    4. Engaging Muslims in Discrepancies

    Grounds of the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception

    Ahaadeeths Narrators

    Muawiya's Merits

    Ashafi'i's Impression on Muawiya

    Al­Hassan Al­Basri's Saying

    The Entire Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception is Having Umayid Flavor

  • Chapter 4 — The Jurisprudential Roots of the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception
  • The Jurisprudential Authority

    The Two Authorities

    1. The Sunnis' Authority is the Entire Sahaba

    2. The Shias' Authority is the Imams and the Authentic Sahaba

    What Is The Doctrinal Base Upon Which Shias Relied In Referring To The Imams As Legal Authority?

    Role of the Two Authorities

    Role Of The Authority At Sunnis

    Role Of The Authority At Shias

    Difference in Base is Difference in Effects

    Numerous Authorities

    The Doctrinal Judgment About The Variety Of Authorities

    Cancellation Of The Doctrinal Authority Necessarily Entails Founding A Surrogate One

    The Only Way Of Founding A Surrogate Authority WAS Fabricating The Entire Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception 

    The Conception Would Have Proved Its Failure If It Had Been Invented By Other Than The Rulers

    The Surrogate Authority Became Legitimate

    The Solution

    In the Absence of the Doctrinal Authority

    The Jurisprudential Dissent

    Roots Of The Aggressive Prosecution Against The Prophet's Household

    Property Of The Immaculate Kinship To The Prophet

    Prospect Of This Property

    Meanings Of Property Of The Immaculate Kinship

    Functions Of The Immaculate Kinship Of The Prophet

    Reasons Beyond Granting Property

    Incentives

    This Property Was Used As A Political Argument In Various Ages

    The Rulers' Political Treatment With The Prophet's Immaculate People.

    Categories Of The Prophet's Kinship

    Dismissal Of The Immaculate Progeny

    Representation Of The Prophet's Progeny's Property

  • Chapter 5 — Prospects Attached to the Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception
  • Finding Competitive Specifications

    A Factual Example

    Another Factual Example

    Expounding Upon the Previous States

    A Striking Surprising and A Wonderment

    Fulfillment Of The Mission

    Finding Competitive Protection

    In Respect of Proclamation

    Examples on What the Sahaba Gain from the Entire Sahaba's Ultimate Decency Conception

    Texts for Reflecting on

    Wonderment

    Imparting the Argument By A Medium

    Expansion in Issuing Verdicts

    A Principal Restraint on the Narrators

  • Part 3 — Chapter 1 — Signification of Authority
  • Coherence of Authority and Doctrine

    Authority is A Matter of Specialization and A Technique of Thorough Experience 

    Variety of Authorities

    Difference Between Doctrine and Authority

    Wisdom of Effecting the Authority

    The Authority is An Undeniable Fact

  • Chapter 2 — The Doctrine
  • Two Categories of Doctrines

    Creating Doctrines and their Essences

    Characteristics of the Islamic Doctrine

    The Dogmatic Depiction

    The Divine Jurisprudential Formulation

  • Chapter 3 — The Competent Practitioner of Nominating the Authority 
  • Missions and Functions of the Authority Nominated By God

    The Authority in the Prophet's Reign

    The Authority After the Prophet

    A Preliminary Review To The Actuality

    The Need Of An Authority After The Prophet

    Wonderments in Need of Answers

  • Chapter 4 — the Muslims' Attitudes Towards the Authority After the Prophet 
  • Who is the Authority Succeeding the Prophet?

    The Sunnis' Opinion: the Claim of the Prophet's Leaving His Nation Without Nominating A Successor Or An Authority 

    Settlement of the Claim of the Prophet's Leaving His Nation Without An Authority

    The Prophet’s Successor According to the Sunnis' Opinion

    For Sunnis, the Prevalent Ruler is the Authority

    The Representative Authority

    Congregational Authority for Sunnis

    Roles of the Authorities for Sunnis

  • Chapter 5 — The Surrogate Authority
  • The Consummation of Installing Features of the Surrogate Authority

    The Clamorous Encounter

    Analysis of the Encounter

    Parties of Encounter

    Preliminary Results of the Encounter

    1. Dissension

    2. Emanation Of A New Huge Trend

    3. Emergence Of The Ideas Of Predominance And Preferring The Follower To The Master

    Two Similar Occurrences

    4. Success And Mastery Of The Prevalent

    5. Dismissing The Prophet's Immaculate Progeny

    The New Stuff of Authority

    Effects of Opposition

  • Chapter 6 — the Authority After the Prophet
  • Shia’s Opinion

    A. Requisiteness of Authority

    B. the Divine Declaration of the Authority

    The Leader and the Authority Nominated By God

    Reasons Beyond Hostility of Sunnis to Shias

    Sunnis' Velocity

    Replication on that Velocity

    The Two Authorities

    God is The Nominator Of The 2 Authorities

    Shariite Proof Of God's Nominating The Individual Authority

    A Model of the Ghadeer Declaration

    The Doctrinal Assertion on Ali's Leadership

    Guidance After the Prophet

    The Attester After the Prophet

    The Shias' Congregational Authority

    The Fruit of the Shias' Pursuing the Doctrinal Authority

  • Part 4 — Chapter 1
  • Regulations of the Society Movement

    Harmony and Perfection Between the Divine Doctrine and the Political Leadership 

    Qualifications of the Doctrinal Political Leadership

    Adept At Assuring Availability of the Qualifications Involved

    The Acceptingness of the Divine Volition

    The Refusal of the Divine Volition

    Varieties of Refusal of the Divine Volition

  • Chapter 2 — The Pre­Adamic Divine Preparations for Nominating the Prophet's Successor 
  • Before the Birth of Adam

    In Front of the Solicitation

    Following the Prophesy

    Declaring the Succession After the Declaration of Prophesy

    Declaring and Arranging for the Heir Apparent

    1. The Credit

    2. The Fraternity

    3. The Wilaya

    Showing Loyalty and Affection to Ali is Estimated As Same As Showing Loyalty and Affection to Allah

    The Consecutive Declarations and Arrangements for Ali's Next Leadership Were God's Mandate 

  • Chapter 3 — The Wali is the Master, the Imam and the Leader
  • The Most Consequential Objective Qualifications Enjoyed By the Leader Succeeding the Prophet

    Allah's Confidant and the Apostle's Successor is the Knight of Islam

  • Chapter 4 — Allah's Marrying His Confidant and His Apostle's Successor 
  • The Good Tidings

    The Blessed Progeny

    The Habitation of the Prophet and His Successor

    Ali is the Prophet's Disciple

    Denial of the Prophet's Nominating Ali As His Inheritor

    The Endowments Exclusively Enjoyed By the Leader and the Prophet's Successor

    The Immunization of the Leader and the Prophet's Successor

  • Chapter 5 — Crowning Ali the Leader and the Prophet's Successor 
  • 1. When: the Farewell Pilgrimage

    2. Where: Ghadeer Khum

    The Divine Mandate of Nominating the Leader and the Prophet's Successor

    The Verse of Tabligh

    The Style of the Decision of Nominating the Leader and the Prophet's Successor

    1. The Text Related By Hutheifeh­bn­Useid Al­Ghefari And Recorded in At­Tabarani's Al­Kabeer

    2. The Text Related By Zaid­bn­Arqam

    3. The Text Related By Al­Bera­bn­Azib

    4. The Text Related By Sa'd­bn­Abi­Waqqas

    5. The Text Related By Sa'd In Another Form

    The Perception of the Decision and Receiving Congratulations

    Texts Quoted from the Immortal Decision of Nominating Ali for the Leadership 

    The Hadith of Ghadeer and the Event of the Nomination is A Certitude

    The Ghadeer Festivity

    Fasting On The Day Of Ghadeer

  • Chapter 6 — The Perfection of the Religion and the Completion of the Grace By Nominating the Imam

    The Divine Disposition of the Transference of Imamate After the Leader's Decease 

    The Specialist in Nominating the Prophet and the Imam

    The Conscript Imam

    The Authority in Charge of Nominating the Successor of the Prophet's Successor

    The Wisdom of Dedicating Imamate to Mohammed's Progeny

    People's Role in the Process of Nominating the Imam

    Disintegration Between Actuality and Legality

    The Legal Imams

    Exposing the Future for the Leader and the Prophet's Successor

    The Collapse of the Jahilite Political Form

  • Chapter 7 — the Rebellion
  • The Historical Circumstance that Helped the Rebellion Prevail and the Legality Retreat

    A. the Clans of Quraish

    B. the Political Form

    C. Endeavors for Shaking the Form

    D. the Augury of Prophesy

    E. the Declaration of Prophesy

    F. the Hashimites' Guarding Mohammed

    G. Not for the Favor of the Pagans, It Was Envy, and Preserving the Political Form

    H. Not for the Favor of the Pagans, the Wars Were Due to Envy and Preserving the Political Form

    I. the Hashemite Prophesy is An Inescapable Fate

    The Hashemite prophesy is an inescapable and determined fate

    J. The Preeminent Trend

    K. the Immaculate Kinship is the Statutory Base of Caliphate

    L. the Rebellion and the Dissipation of the Preeminent Trend

    The Literal Quotation Of This Narrative

    M. the Statutory Ground of the Conception of Intercepting the Hashemites from Joining Headship to Prophesy 

    N. Effects of Practic€ing the Conception of Intercepting the Hashemites from Joining Headship to Prophesy 

    1st Effect: The Total Disappearance Of The Discrimination Between Those Who Fought Against Islam And Those Who Fought For Its Sake Till Triumph Was Achieved

    2nd Effect: Seeding And Sheltering The Unceasing Discrepancy

    3rd Effect: Excluding The Hashemites Particularly From Coming To Power

    4th Effect: Confusedness

  • Chapter 8 — Introductories to the Rebellion
  • With the Prophet in His Final Disease

    The  Encounter: Parties and Preliminary Results

    1. Dissension

    2. The Emanation Of A New Huge Trend

    3. Emergence Of The Ideas Of Predominance And Preferring The Follower To The Master

    Two Similar Occurrences

    4. Success And Mastery Of The Prevalent

    5. Dismissing The Prophet's Immaculate Progeny

    6. Seizure of the Power

    1. Recollection And Reconnection Of Events

    2. The Conclusive Success

    The Two Choices

    Dress of Legality

  • Chapter 9 — Aims and Objects of Al­Faruq
  • The Ideal Solution

    Probing the Solution

    Al­Faruq's Adopting and Developing the Saying

    Like their Alliance Against the Prophet, People of Quraish Allied Against His Successor

    The Quraishis Were Planning While the Hashemites Were Drowned in their Grief 

    The Punctilious Planning

    The First Fruit Of The Planning

    Planning for Defeating the Hashemites

    Benefiting the Same Preponderancies for Achieving Aims

    Equality, Opportunity and Objectivity

    The Authority Capable of Defeating the Divinely Elected Leader, and the Flawless Cabal

    The Saqeefa Meeting

    Unanswerable Questions

    Who Conveyed the News of the Meeting?

    Two Men from the Ansar

  • Chapter 10 — Objective Analysis, and Denial of Serendipity
  • The Entering of the Three Muhajirs

    The Purpose Beyond The Three Muhajirs' Participation

    In the Saqeefa

    The Greatest Humanitarian Wealth

    The Legal Arguments of People of Saqeefa

    The Argument of the Present Ansar

    The Purpose of the Three Muhajirs

    The Legal Arguments of the Three Muhajirs

    Summary of Abu­Bakr’s Argument Provided Before the Ansar

    Summary of Omar’s Argument Provided Before the Ansar

    The Ansar’s Replication

    Expectation and Substantiation

    The Caliph Should Be One of Those Three

    The First Declarer of Fealty

    Nominating and Swearing Allegiance to the Caliph

    The Reward

    Spreading of the News of the Declaration

    The Unequal Confrontation Between the Divinely Nominated Leader and the New Power

    The Foremost Declarer’s Judgment

    An Activity

    Humiliating and Threatening the Divinely Nominated Leader for Taking His Declaration of Fealty

    An Endeavor for Seeking Az­Zahra’s Affability

    Abu­Bakr Aimed At Abdicating

    The Final Situation of the Divinely Nominated Leader

    Mystery of the Quraishis’ Rejecting Ali’s Leadership

    Anticipating The Falling Of The Critical Matter

    The Fair Partitioning

    The Quraishi Clans’ Forming a Team

  • Chapter 11 — Depriving the Hashemites of their Political Rights 
  • What is the Idea of Deferring the Hashemites

    Al­Faruq’s Expressing the Reasons

    Al­Faruq’s Impression on the Impracticality of the Hashemites’ Joining Leadership to Prophesy Slogan 

    The Exaggeration In Loyalty To The Slogan

    Was The Slogan Allah’s Order?

    What for was Al­Faruq, then, Adherent and Sincere to the Slogan?

    Al­Faruq’s Situations Towards the Divinely Nominated Leader and the Prophet’s Household

    On the Intersection of Courses

    Collapses

    The Ruling Authority And The Opposition

    Two Choices Before the Opposition

    Two Choices Before the Nation

    Discrepancy of People

    1. Sunnis

    2. Shias