of those who were satisfied with laziness and abdicated the caliphate, saying: “And this is al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be on him) said to Mu’awiya: ‘Most surely there is a debt against me. Pay my debt, and I will abdicate the caliphate. They paid his debt, and he abdicated the caliphate.’”
Dr. Philip Hatty
Professor Philip Hatty has said: “Another movement arose at the beginning of Mu’awiya’s reign. The movement was of great importance among the following generations. I mean (when) the people of Iraq declared al-Hasan bin Ali as a legal caliph. Perhaps this foundation is logical, for al-Hasan was the eldest son of Ali and Fatima, the Prophet’s only daughter who survived after his death. However al-Hasan- who inclined to luxury and lavishness, and not to government and management-was not the man of the attitude. So he abdicated the caliphate and was satisfied with a yearly gift he (Mu’awiya) gave to him.”
Professor al-Alaa’ili has said: “But he (al-Hasan) was able to repeat the disbanded groups through consultation and enthusiasm. He spread (among them) the spirit of determination and will. He was like the iron leaders such as Napoleon, who undertook a people whom the long revolution exhausted just as it exhausted the Arabs, and whom he increased in exhaustion through the continuous, successive wars through which he took Europe. However the leader was covered by the wave of boredom that covered the people.”
R. M. Ronalds
R. M. Ronalds, an orientalist, has said: “Most surely the reports indicate that al-Hasan lacked morale strength and a mental ability that he might successfully lead his people.”
 Sharh Lamiyat al-‘Ajam, vol. 2, p. 27. Al-Safadi has said something at random. When did Imam al-Hasan sell the caliphate to his opponent for repaying his debt? We seek refuge with Allah from this accusation!
 Al-‘Arab, p. 78.
 Hayat al-Hasan, vol. 2, p. 283.
 ‘Aqidat al-Shia translated by A. M. S. This orientalist has filled his book with lying, criticizing Islam and degrading the value of its brilliant, great figures. In al-Bayan bright Magazine, no. 35-39 (assigned to Imam al-Hasan, the master of martyrs), the second year, professor al-Sayyid ‘Abd al-Hadi al-Mukhtar has falsified his researches and displayed his lies.
This English person, who harbored malice against Islam, did not understand its values and reality, has said: “The pledge of allegiance was given to al-Hasan after the murder of Ali. So his supporters tried to persuade him to return to fight against the people of Sham. This persistence from their side changed the anger of al-Hasan with the crippled determination. So he no longer thought (of anything) except reaching an agreement with Mu’awiya; likewise he led to a division between him and the people of Iraq. They reached a stage where they weakened their Imam, by word not by deed, by wounding him. So from that time al-Hasan was controlled by one thought, which was reaching an agreement with the Umayyads. Mu’awiya let him appoint what he requested as a reward for his abdicating the caliphate. Al-Hasan was not satisfied with the two million dirhams he requested as a livelihood for his brother al-Husayn; rather he asked for himself other five million dirhams and entered into a district of Persia throughout his lifetime. After that he opposed the people of Iraq in carrying out the last item of this agreement. But he was responded to with all that which he asked to the extent that the grandson of the Prophet dared to repent openly that he did not double his demand. And he left Iraq filled with the people’s displeasure with him, that he might keep to Medina.”
 Daa’irat al-Ma’arif al-Islamiya, vol. 7, p. 400. This Daa’irat (encyclopedia) is nothing but an encyclopedia of lying and fabrications. It is full of defaming Islam and cursing its great figures, especially as it concerns Laamans’s researches on the Shia and their Imams. They are full of slanders and buffoonery against them. The reason for that is that the Christian missionary committees urged the like of these mercenary pens to distort Islam and to scheme against it. Besides the researches of the orientalists depended on a surface studying void of examination and inquiry. It is worth mentioning that an orientalist visited Tehran (Iran’s capital) after he had learned the Persian language in the Eastern Language Schools. He tried to write a history on Iran’s social and moral conditions as he saw them. He saw some porters carrying vessels and excellent necessities on their heads. There were tambourines and flutes in front of them. He asked about that, and it was said to him: “It was a bride’s trousseau!” Then he asked about the name of the bridegroom. One of the attendants said to him: “Madha yahumaka (i.e. What does concern you?)” In the evening this orientalist saw a man hitting a women in the street. He asked one of the attendants about the story, and he answered him: “The hitter is her husband, and she has unjustly abandoned him.” Then he asked him about the name of the husband, and he answered him: “Madha yahumaka?” As a result the orientalist thought that the name of the husband was Madha yahumaka, and that he was the bridegroom whose trousseau he saw in the morning. Accordingly, this orientalist wrote in his book the History of Iran that he saw in its capital a man marrying his bride in the morning and hitting her in the street in the evening and that his name was Madha yahumaka! This is the condition of the orientalists in respect of axiomatic, manifest affairs, just
These people who have criticized al-Hasan for his making peace with Mu’awiya have harbored malice and enmity against Islam. Some of them have not yielded to the freedom of opinion. All of them have deviated from the reality and gone far from the truth in respect of what they have written from among the researches on Imam al-Hasan. They have not fully understood the severe factors that surrounded Imam al-Hasan to the extent that they forced him to make peace with his opponent Mu’awiya. It is incumbent on the writer who wants to give his opinion about this important subject matter to fully understand it from all sides that his opinion may be close to correctness and far from mistake. As for us, we have understood some reasons and factors that forced Imam al-Hasan to make peace with his enemy. These reasons and factors are brief. We have concluded some of them from the previous researches. We have concluded the others from our studying Mu’awiya’s psyche, observing his governors, understanding the Imam’s high character, and acquiring knowledge of the policy of the Prophet’s Household, peace be on them, used for reaching government. It is worth mentioning that the Prophet’s household did not use the means that Islam has condemned. Before we deal with the reasons of the peacemaking, we would like to explain that we may repeat some examples of the previous subjects. We are forced to do that as proofs for what we maintain. That is because the repetition is necessary and required by the research. Indeed talking in detail about this subject matter and understanding it is more important than others, as we think. We will draw the attention of readers to these reasons which are as follows:
The Army is divided
Most surely the most dangerous disaster a state faces in all its fields most likely results from the wickedness of the Army, its intense opposition, and its mutiny against its commanders-in-chief. The then Iraq Army was afflicted with mutiny and weakness where as Mu’awiya’s Army was not afflicted with that; it kept its obedience to its government; it was not stricken by such shocks and relapses.
As for the reasons that led to the division of the Iraqi Army, they are as follows:
imagine how much more their condition in respect of difficult, obscure affairs is! This is if they do not depend on distortion, just imagine how much more it is if they depend on it! Unfortunately our young people have taken care of studying their books and depended on them in respect of their theses though they have no share of correctness and reality.
The Party Opposition
If some parties in an army oppose each other -because they harbor malice against their standing government or because they have a relationship with a foreign state that inspires them with work and give them instructions to overthrow their government-then their government will face its inevitable end sooner or later. As for the then Iraqi Army, it was afflicted with two parties that showed no friendship to the Hashimite government, nor did they keep it; rather they spared no effort to put an end to it. The two parties are:
The Umayyad Party
The children of the prominent family and possessor of the aristocratic houses belonged to this party. They paid attention to nothing except the authority in this world and obtaining property. Some of them are ‘Umar bin Sa‘d, Qays bin al-Ash‘th, Amr bin Hurayth, Hajjar bin Abjar, Amr bin al-Hajjaj, and the like from among those void of virtue and dignity. They were the most dangerous elements among the Army. They promised to hand over Imam al-Hasan to Mu’awiya as a captive or to assassinate him. In the meantime they did things of great importance of which are:
A. They recorded all the aspects
and movements of the army and sent them to Mu’awiya to
have knowledge of them.
Theses destructive acts led to the collapse of the Army, shaking its entity, and the weakness of their morale in all the fields.
The Harawri Party
This party undertook the revolt against the then government and fighting against it in all means possible. Its principles were terribly spread among the Iraqi Army. That is because those who spread their beliefs were good at invading the hearts and the opinions and (they were) good at the means of propaganda. Ziyad bin Abeeh has described their ability in this respect, saying: “Most surely the speech of these people is quicker in reaching the hearts than the fire in reaching the reeds!” Al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba has described their intense influence on the people, saying: “When they resided in a country, they spoiled all those who associated with them.” They controlled the simple-minded from among the (Iraqi) Army through their slogan: “The
 Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 109.
government belongs to Allah!” With this they meant nothing except the government through the sword, as Flotin says.
The crooked plans of the Harawriyya (Kharijites) made it incumbent on their followers to revolt against the ruler of the Muslims when he did not belong to them. This was religious jihad with them, and they had to sacrifice their lives for it. The Kharijites strongly revolted against the rulers to the extent that they were unable to resist them. They carried in their souls strong malice against the Hashimite government, for its members had killed their prominent persons and put an end to many of them at the Battle of al-Nahrawan. They killed Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, and left him thrown down in his mihrab as a sign of their taking a vengeance on him due to what he had done to them. They also tried to assassinate Imam al-Hasan (a.s) when they stabbed him in the thigh. Besides they accused him of unbelief. This group of people was numerous. Some books have mentioned that the majority of the Army were from them.
These two parties dominated Iraq and spared no effort to spoil the Army, to sow disagreement and division among all its units to the extent that they suffered from troubles and disorders. Besides, a large group of them took a negative attitude towards the affair of Imam al-Hasan, peace be on him. That is because they did not understand the original objectives the Imam sought. Because of their narrow thinking they maintained that the Imam was every one who ascended the throne of government through any means possible; therefore al-Hasan and Mu’awiya were the same (for them), though al-Hasan fought against Mu’awiya for the religion, and Mu’awiya fought against al-Hasan for the world.
After that, none was ready to support the Hashimite government or to side with it except the Shia who maintained that the Alawids were worthy of the caliphate. Such Shiites were the leader Qays bin Sa‘d, Sa‘eed bin Qays, ‘Adi bin Hatam al-Taa’i, Hijr bin ‘Adi, Rashid al-Hajjri, Habeeb bin Muzahir, and the like from among the followers of Imam Ali (a.s). However, they were few in number just as Allah, the Exalted, has said: “And they are few.” Accordingly, they were unable to save the Army from the dangers that surrounded it. If they had been many in the Army, Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, would not have been forced to accept the arbitration, and al-Hasan would not have resorted to the peacemaking.
 Al-Siyada al-‘Arabiya, p. 69.
 A’yan al-Shia, vol. 4, p. 42.
Boredom of War
The Kufans were tired of war, “and the tired has no opinion.” In addition to this psychological phenomenon for which they were famous, there are two reasons that brought about and doubled the boredom. They are as follows:
The Successive Battles
Among the reasons that brought about tiredness and boredom to the souls of the Iraqi army are the successive battles. That is because the state used to send the Army to make conquest and to defend it. The Battles of Siffin and al-Nahrawan increased the weakness of the nerves of its members and the collapse of their strength. During these two battles many people were killed to the extent that they hated battle and preferred tranquility and peace.
The Despair of Booties
The Iraqi Army won nothing of the weapon and property during the Battles of al-Jamal (the Camel), Siffin, and al-Nahrawan. That is because Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, did not regard the people who fought against him at these battles as unbelievers and did not divide their belongings among the Muslims. Rather he ordered them to be returned to their owners after the end of Basra Battle (the Battle of the Camel). The Army came to know that Imam al-Hasan would not change his father’s conduct and program. So they had no confidence in the property and the booty if they fought against Mu’awiya. Accordingly, they declared rebellion, showed mutiny and boredom of war.
Most surely that the Iraqi Army hated war and preferred peace to it, and this did not result from Maskan events; rather it resulted from raising copies of the Qur’an (at the Battle of Siffin) and from the Battle of al-Nahrawan. All the units of the Army inclined to peace. In the first part of the book we have mentioned some examples of the treacherous aggressions which Mu’awiya’s troops made through the Iraqi borders. We have also mentioned some examples of their invading the Iraqi cities, their terrifying and killing the innocent people, while they (the Iraqis) were too weak and laggard to resist them. The religious sentiments did not move them nor did human feelings shake them to repel the oppression and abasement. Imam Ali (a.s) commanded them to perform jihad, but they did not obey him. He invited them to support him, but they did not respond to him. This attitude left in his soul bitter sorrow and permanent sadness. Accordingly, in many of his speeches, the Imam has disparaged and dispraised them. He (a.s) has said: “I am tired of admonishing you. Are you satisfied with this worldly life in place
 Dr. Taha Husayn, Ali wa Banuh, p. 55.
of the next life? Or disgrace in place of dignity? When I summon you to fight against your enemy, your eyes revolve as though you are in the clutches of death and in the senselessness of the last moments….”
Imam Ali goes on rebuking and admonishing them. He shows his displeasure with their weakness and their turning away from war, saying: “Neither you are a support for me to lean upon…. By Allah, most surely, I think that if battle rages and death hovers around you, you will cut away from the son of Abi Talib like the severing of head from the trunk….”
In another speech he (a.s) describes their turning away from the jihad in the way of Allah, his terrible ordeal and tribulation in respect of them, saying: “I called them secretly as well as openly, again and again. Some of them unwillingly came; some of them affected illness; and some of them tarried and deserted. And I ask Allah to give me a quick relief from them! By Allah, were it not for my ambition for martyrdom during meeting my enemy (in battle), I would like that I would not remain with these people for one day and never meet with them!”
In another speech he (a.s) says: “By Allah, deceived is one whom you have deceived while, by Allah, he who is successful with you receives only useless arrows. You are like broken arrows thrown over the enemy. By Allah, I am now in the position that I neither confirm your views nor hope for your support, nor challenge the enemy through you. What is the matter with you? What is your ailment? What is your cure?”
Nahj al-Balagha contains a large group of Imam Ali’s speeches in which he has expressed his displeasure with his Army and their turning away from supporting him. He has said that they filled his heart with pus, loaded his bosom with rage, and caused him griefs one after the other. They remained tired of war and hated jihad throughout the days of Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful. When Imam al-Hasan (a.s) became a caliph, they showed that in the worst manner. When he asked them about Mu’awiya’s summons to peacemaking, they said at the top of their voices: “The remainder! The remainder!”
This indicates that they were tired of war, they hated jihad, and would never been with Imam al-Hasan if he had opened a door to battle against Mu’awiya.
 Muhammed ‘Abda, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p. 67.
 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 70.
Missing the aware Figures
Among the reasons for dividing the Iraqi Army is that it lost the aware forces from among the Muslim great figures who believed in the right of the Prophet’s Household, peace be on them, and regarded their excellence. All the military units respect them, for they were good Muslims, show extreme courage (at battles), played an important role in organizing the military movements, and guided the army to serve the Islamic objectives. Examples of them are ‘Ammar bin Yasir, a great companion (of the Prophet), Hashim al-Mirqal, an inspired leader, Thabit bin Qays, the one of two testimonies, and the like from among those who had precedence in Islam and faith. Most of them were killed at the Battle of Siffin. Historians have counted the number of those who had taken part in the Battle of Badr, and it was sixty-three men (from among those who fought with Imam Ali in). There is another group of the pious, good companions who died martyrs at the battles made by those ambitious and devious from Islam against Imam Ali. Missing them left a large gap in the Iraqi Army, that lost the leading personalities and was afflicted with the hypocrites and the Kharijites who were like a woodworm boring in its entity. If Imam al-Hasan’s Army had had the like of those pious, the Imam would not make peace with his opponent.
The Summons to Peacemaking
Another reason for undermining the determinations and putting out the fire of the revolt in the souls of the Army is Mu’awiya’s summons to peacemaking and sparing blood. For this summons was very agreeable. That is because the simple-minded regarded it as good. However the overwhelming majority had not come to know Mu’awiya’s intentions and the evil he had schemed against them. So his summons to peacemaking deceived them just as the raising of copies of the Qur’an had deceived them. Besides, their leaders betrayed Imam al-Hasan and joined Mu’awiya’s camp.
Anyway the majority of the Army hailed the summons to peacemaking and preferred peace to war. As for Imam al-Hasan, he was unable to force them to fight against Mu’awiya and to resist him.
The desertion of Ubaydillah bin al-Abbas is regarded as among the factors that divided and undermined the Army. Through his treason he deadly stabbed the Iraqi army, opened a door to treason and perfidy, and paved the way for people to join Mu’awiya. The men of he weak souls found a wide room to desert their Imam. They used Ubaydillah’s treason as means for that, for he was the Imam’s cousin and the closet of the people to him in kinship. In the past it was said:
If the closer (in kinship) to whose party you belong deserts you, then there is no wonder when those far desert you!
Ubaydillah’s treason created in the Imam’s soul strong sadness and a bitter sorrow. That is because he paid no attention to the religion, the revenge, the tribal links, the close relationships with Allah’s Apostle, and with his commander-in-chief. Nor did he pay attention to the pledge of allegiance he had made before Allah, for he was the first to summon the people to pledge allegiance to al-Hasan in Kufa Mosque. Nor did he pay attention to the fear of the people’s speech and the vengeance of history.
The Treason of Rabee’a
Among the reasons for the collapse of the Army, the division of their bases, and their feebleness in resistance was the treason of (the tribe of) Rabee‘a, who were like a strong armor to the Imam. That was when Khalid bin Mu‘ammar, a brilliant leader among Rabee‘a, joined Mu’awiya and said to him: “I will pledge allegiance to you on behalf of Rabee‘a.” He paid homage to him on their behalf. The poet said in respect of him when he addressed Mu’awiya, saying:
O Mu’awiya, honor Khalid bin Mu‘ammar, for, most surely, were it not for Khalid, you would not be appointed as a commander!
When al-Hasan heard of that, his became very angry. He headed for the Iraqis and addressed them, saying: “O People of Iraq, it was you who forced my father to fight (against Mu’awiya) and (to accept) the arbitration. Then you disobeyed him. I have heard that the men of honor from among you have come to Mu’awiya and paid homage to him. Therefore sufficient unto me is that which (has issued) from you! Do not deceive me in respect of my religion and my soul!”
Uthman bin Shurhabeel, the chief of the the tribe of Tamim, secretly pledged allegiance to Mu’awiya. Accordingly, the treason spread over the military units.
For money the protections of men are bought, homelands are sold, and thoughts are suppressed. A mouth waters for money! Indeed Mu’awiya deliberately spent money on the prominent persons, the noble, and the leaders. That is because he had come to know that he had no means to overcome the event except through spending money. Accordingly, the people
 Ansab al-Ashraf, Q1/vol.1, p. 223.
betrayed Imam al-Hasan and slipped away in the night and in the daylight to join Mu’awiya’s camp. They paid no attention to shame, disgrace, and Allah’s punishment. Their treason led to the disorders of the army, division, and the declaration of rebellion and mutiny.
Most surely, the overwhelming majority of the Army had no noble objective; rather they wished for their profits and ambitions. One of them stated that at one of the battles, saying: “Whoever gives us a dirham, we will fight on his behalf!”
A poet dispraised a person who was killed at those battles. The poet said to his children:
Your father met his death not for the sake of Allah but for the sake of the dirhams.
If the members of an army fight for material motives, they are not loyal to their defense, their mutiny is very possible, and their danger against their government is more than an external danger.
The then Iraqis were corrupt and greedy to get money from Mu’awiya. For example, after Imam al-Hasan had received a wound, he went to al-Mada’in for cure. There he stopped at the house of Sa‘d bin Mas‘ud al-Thaqafi , who was appointed as a governor over al-Mada’in by Imam Ali (a.s) and by Imam al-Hasan (a.s). Then his (Sa‘d) young nephew called al-Mukhtar came to him and said:
-O uncle, do you have (an objective) in
riches and honor?
 Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 19.
 Al-Bukhari has mentioned Sa‘d bin Mas‘ud al-Thaqafi (and regarded him as) among the companions (of the Prophet). Al-Tabarani has said: “He (Sa‘d bin Mas‘ud al-Thaqafi) had companionship (with the Prophet). (Imam Ali), the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, appointed him as a governor over one of his works. He took him with him to (the Battle of) Siffin. He (Sa‘d bin Mas‘ud al-Thaqafi) narrated the following tradition on the authority of the Imam, who said: “When Noah wore a garment, he thanked Allah. When he ate or drank, he thanked Allah. So he was called a grateful servant.” Al-Isaba, vol. 2, p. 34.
 Al-Tabari, Tarikh. Al-Isaba. Some researchers have negated the correctness of the narration and regarded it as among the fabricated ones. That is possible, for al-Mukhtar was the best of the men in his conduct, his piety, and all his tendencies.
The treason included al-Mukhtar, if this narration was true, and the majority of the army who were with Imam al-Hasan, and they competed with each other for the worldly ambitions. That was not only during the time of Imam al-Hasan, peace be on him. It was also during the time of Imam Ali (a.s). Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin (a.s) has said: “Mu’awiya fought Ali through his gold!” Most surely Mu’awiya came to know the point of weakness in Imam al-Hasan’s army, so he showered it with bribes to the extent that it responded to him and abandoned the Prophet’s family and his trust among his community.
The false Rumors
Among the reasons for the division of the army are the false rumors which Mu’awiya’s hirelings spread in al-Mada’in. They rumored that Qays bin Sa‘d was killed. They also rumored that he made peace with Mu’awiya. The members of the Army believed these rumors, so they suffered from troubles and discords. The most dangerous of these rumors in tribulation and greatest of them in destruction was that which was spread by the delegation sent by Mu’awiya to Imam al-Hasan. When the members of the delegation left Imam al-Hasan, they rumored that he responded to peacemaking. When the members of the Army heard of that, they rushed like waves. They plundered Imam al-Hasan’s property and aggressed against him. If the leaders and the prominent figures had had a little bit of humanity and dignity, they would have protected the Imam and driven the mobs away from him till the affair would be clear to them. However they remained in their camps. They neither protected nor helped him.
With this topic we will end our speech about the factors that led to the division and destruction of the Army. Of course, military forces are the core of a state and the source of its protection. If such shocks and dangers strike them, can the commander-in-chief achieve his objectives or open a door to war against the enemy forces?
The Enemy’s Forces
The second factor that urged Imam al-Hasan to make peace (with Mu’awiya) was that his opponent had military forces and the like against whom the Imam was unable to fight, nor was he able to resist. With these forces Mu’awiya had fought against Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, before and forced Imam al-Hasan to make peace with him. We will give a brief outline on some of them as follows:
 Al-Maqreezi, Khutat, vol. 2, p. 439.
The Obedience of the Army
Mu’awiya planted the love for him in the hearts of his Army. He dominated their feelings and sentiments. It was because he knew their inclinations and trends. So he complied with them to the extent that they loved him, and he loved them. They obeyed him and their opinion of him was fully developed because of his propaganda and his cheating through that he was the proof after the Caliphs, and that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, had no lawful inheritor other than the Umayyads. The historians have narrated: “When Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah conquered Sham, a group of leaders and prominent persons came to him. They swore by Allah that they had come to know that the Prophet had neither kinship nor household to inherit him except the Umayyads. They knew that when the Abbasids undertook the caliphate.” Concerning that, Ibrahim bin al-Muhajir al-Bajali says:
people, listen to me so that I tell you something
wonderful (and) has exceeded all wonderful things.
The reason behind that were the narrations that the mercenary narrators fabricated and rumored among the people of Damascus. They told the people there that Mu’awiya was the inheritor of the Prophet and the nearest of the people to him. They ascribed to him and to the cursed tree of his family good qualities and noble descriptions, to the extent that they placed him in the first class from among the good reformers to whom obedience was one of the religious duties. The people of Sham believed in other things as to Mu’awiya and the Umayyads. Professor Fan Floten says: “The great majority thought that the Umayyad party was that of the religion and the regime.” He added:
 Abu al-‘Abbas was the first ‘Abbasid caliph. He was at al-Hamiya, a district of al-Balqa’, in the year 108 A. H. He grew up at it. He was given the pledge of allegiance as a caliph in 3rd Rabee‘ al-Awwal, in the year 132. He hurried to shed blood. His governors in the east and west followed his examples. He died in the year 136. Al-Sayuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa’, p. 100.
 Ibrahim bin al-Muhajir al-Bajali is Abu Ishaq al-Kufi. He narrated traditions on the authority of a group of the trustworthy, and others reported on his authority. (The traditionists) have differed over his narration. So it was said that he was trustworthy, and it was said that he was weak. Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 1, p. 167.
 Al-Mas‘udi Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 167.
“In the viewpoint of the Umayyad party Mu’awiya was the vicegerent of Allah just as his son Yazid was the Imam of the Muslims, ‘Abd al-Malik was the Imam of Islam and one entrusted by Allah.” The people of Sham loved and obeyed Mu’awiya to the extent that he made them walk on all the ways far and contrary to the religion, while they did not know that. Through them he could achieve all what he wanted. Because of their increasingly obedience to Mu’awiya, Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, had wished that Mu’awiya would have given him one of his companions and taken ten of the Iraqis who were famous for riot and mutiny.
Simplicity and Naiveté
The bad time helped Mu’awiya dominate the Army that was a model of simplicity and naiveté, for the great majority of it did not know which anecdote was the longest. History has mentioned many examples of their stupidity indicating their inactivity and lacking insight. The historians have mentioned that a man from Kufa came to Damascus on the back of a camel. That was when they went away from Siffin. A man from Damascus clung to him and said to him: “This is my she-camel! You took it from me at Siffin!” A quarrel took place between them. So they brought their case before Mu’awiya. The man from Damascus brought fifty men to bear witness that the she-camel belonged to him. Accordingly, Mu’awiya decided against the Kufan and commanded him to hand over the camel to the Syrian man immediately. So the Iraqi man turned to Mu’awiya and showed his astonishment at this judgement, saying: “May Allah set you right! It is a he-camel, and not a she-camel!”
“The decision is over!” exclaimed Mu’awiya.
When the people went away, Mu’awiya ordered the Iraqi to be brought before him. When he was before him, he asked him about the value of the he-camel. The Iraqi told Mu’awiya about its value, and Mu’awiya gave a double of its price to him. He was kind to him and said: “Say to Ali that I will meet him (in battle) with one thousand men who do not distinguish the she-camel from the he-camel!”
Most surely the overwhelming majority did not distinguish between a she-camel and a he-camel. Without doubt they did not distinguish truth from falsehood. They did not carefully consider the differences among the sensible things. They were mobs and rabbles. The clearest proof of their inattentiveness
 Al-Siyada al-‘Arabiya, p. 70.
 Al-Mas‘udi Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 332.
was the story of ‘Ammar bin Yasir, the great companion of the Prophet. When he obtained martyrdom, the Syrians differed over him because of the tradition of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family: “Most surely the oppressive group will kill Ibn Sumayya (i.e. ‘Ammar bin Yasir).” When Amr bin al-‘Aas saw that they differed, he said to them: “Most surely, he who brought him (Ammar) out has killed him!” So they believed his speech and returned to the obedience to Mu’awiya. Of course when a state has such an inattentive, obedient army, it will reach its purposes and achieve its objectives.
Mu’awiya made the people of Sham inattentive, ignorant, and wretched. He made them sink under the yoke of the Umayyad enslavement. He placed between them and the people an iron curtain. He did not allow the others to communicate with them nor did he allow them to communicate with the others lest they should come to know the truth and know Mu’awiya’s falsehood and his usurping the caliphate from its actual people. The politicians after Mu’awiya followed this policy. They deliberately made them lead a life of ignorance. They did not allow awareness to be spread among them. The historians have narrated that Ayas disputed with an old man from among the people of Sham, and their case was brought before the judge. The judge said to him: “Do you not feel shame of that you disputed with an old man, while you are a young man?” “The truth is greater than him,” replied Ayas. So the judge rebuked him and commanded him to keep silent. As a result Ayas said to him: “Who will utter my proof?” So the Judge went to ‘Abd al-Malik and told him about Ayas’s case. ‘Abd al-Malik said to the judge: “Grant his need and bring him out of Sham lest he should spoil the people against us!”
The historians have mentioned many examples of such cases showing the Umayyad policy aiming at deadening awareness and spreading ignorance.
The unanimous Agreement
In the previous researches we have mentioned that the Iraqis were afflicted with disagreement and division. That is because the members of the parties spared no effort to shake the entity of the Hashimite government and to destroy its throne. But all the classes in Sham were not afflicted with such parties, nor were they stricken by the opinions hostile to the standing government. Peace, harmony, and tranquility prevailed over Damascus and all its districts. In the Army and the kingdom the Kharijites had neither place nor
 Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 4, p. 133.
summoners to them or to other than them from among those who worked to overthrow the government. This unanimous agreement was the reason for Mu’awiya’s power, his wide range and influence.
The huge Army
Mu’awiya spent all his spiritual and material efforts to set right his Army and to reinforce it. For example, when Sham was afflicted with the Romans’ danger, Mu’awiya hurried to conclude a timely truce with their Emperor and to give him important properties. He did not open a door to war against him lest the nerves of his Army should be weak. Besides he did not employ his Army during the conquests and the battles. He did not employ it at any battle except that of Siffin, so the Army kept its activity and strength.
In addition to his Army residing with him in Damascus, Mu’awiya wrote to his governors and his leaders in all the countries when he decided to war against Imam al-Hasan. He asked them for help and to be fully ready for fighting against the Prophet’s grandson (Imam al-Hasan). Shortly after that, huge military forces joined him. So he added them to those of Sham and set off towards Iraq along with a huge Army full in number, good in appearance, abundant in strength, and obedient to his commands. Accordingly, Imam al-Hasan understood that he had no ability to meet him (in battle) and to fight against him with his weak Army among which treason and perfidy spread.
In addition to the military forces Mu’awiya enjoined, he had other forces with effective influence on reinforcing his front, directing him, and managing his affairs. That was when the experienced and the politicians joined him because they craved after his property and his world. An example of these persons was al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba about whose trick and cunning it has been said: “If al-Mughira was in a city with eight gates and none could pass through them except through trick and deception, he would pass through all its gates!” And it was said concerning his great cunning: “When an affair happened to al-Mughira, he found an outlet to it. When two affairs became vague to him, he showed an opinion of one of them.” Yet another example of such people is Amr bin al-‘Aas who was a castle of cunning and falsehood. In respect of describing him it was said: “I have never seen (a man) greater than Amr bin al-‘Aas in overcoming the men when they came together and in spending!” He was on top of those who raised the flag of the revolt against ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan, for the latter removed him from his office. He moved against him in spites of the people and urged those far and near to fight against him. In this respect he said: “By Allah, when I met a shepherd, I provoked him against
‘Uthman! Besides (I provoked against him) the heads and the prominent persons!”When he heard of the murder of ‘Uthman, he said: “I am Abu Abdullah.When I move an ulcer, I make it bleed!” He had deceived the Iraqi Army through raising copies of the Qur’an. He divided the Army into parts and made it different in desires.
Mu’awiya attracted these cunning people, who mixed poison with honey, clothed falsehood with the garment of truth, did not refrain from sin, and detested things for their evil tendencies. They had no objective except putting an end to the progeny of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and those associated with them from among the righteous Muslims. That was because they wanted to put an end to Islam and to go too far in practicing dissoluteness wherever they wished. As for Imam al-Hasan (a.s) he took the decisive attitude that thinkers took. He protected the progeny of Allah’s Apostle (a.s) and spared the blood of the believers from among his followers. He thought that the sacrifice at that time would never give general interests to the Muslims, for the Umayyads would give to it various kinds of distortion and misguidance through which it would lose its morale and originality.
Mu’awiya had immense wealth in Sham prepared throughout his governing it. He did not spend it on the interests of the Muslims; rather he bought by it the consciences and the religions to clear the way for him to win the supreme authority and to control the Muslims.
Mu’awiya sent cruel tax collectors to take taxes from the Muslim peoples in the countries he had occupied, and they unjustly took the Muslims’ properties to the extent that they went too far in exhausting them and forcing them to pay taxes. He also imposed on them taxes Islam had not legislated such as al-Nawruz gifts. So his treasuries were full of properties, and he freely spent them on fighting Imam al-Hasan, the Prophet’s darling grandson, and overcoming him. As for the Prophet’s grandson (al-Hasan), he came to know that Mu’awiya, Hind’s son, became powerful. He thought that he would not be able to fight against him, that he would win no victory over him, and that the attitude required peacemaking, not war and fighting. He was sure that war would bring about to the community bad complications whose dangers none knew except Allah.
 Al-Nawruz is the Persian New Year’s Day.
The Assassination of Imam Ali
Among the factors that urged Imam al-Hasan to make peace with Mu’awiya is the murder of his father through which he was terrified. This left in his soul permanent sadness and strong sorrow, because Imam Ali was killed not for money he had taken nor for a sunna he had changed nor for a right with which he had singled himself out excluding them. Rather throughout his reign he led a life of the poor and the weak. In the meantime he spared no effort to make the community lead a life full of boons and blessings. He did his best to establish justice, deaden tyranny, support the oppressed, and to relieve the weak and the deprived. However the people denied this shining justice and deliberately assassinated him at the time when he was before Allah. They paid no attention to his sacredness and to that of Allah’s Apostle (a.s). They committed this abominable crime, so Imam al-Hasan (a.s) thought that it was difficult for him to set them right or to return them to the way of the truth and rightness. He turned away from undertaking the authority over them and refrained from meeting with them. He wished that he had not known them just as his father had wished before. He (a.s) has mentioned this attitude, saying: “Your assassinating my father has made me refrain from you!”
Indeed the murder of Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, and the pioneer of the social justice, was among the most important reasons that made Imam al-Hasan refrain from those ignorant people who made troubles, had desires, and deviated from the straight path!
Sparing of Blood
Among the reasons for the peacemaking is that Imam al-Hasan’s urgently wanted to spare and not to shed the Muslims’ blood. If he had opened a door to war against Mu’awiya, he would have sacrificed his followers and his household; and through that the torch of faith would have been put out and Islam would have been uprooted. He (a.s) has mentioned that in his answer to the reasons of his making peace (with Mu’awiya). He has said: “Most surely I was afraid that the Muslims would be uprooted from the surface of the earth. So I wanted someone to announce the religion!”
He (a.s) answered those from among his followers who harbored malice against him because of the peacemaking, saying: “Through my making peace with Mu’awiya I wanted (nothing) except keeping murder away from you.” In the speech he made in al-Mada’in, he expressed his great taking care of sparing the Muslims’ blood. In it he has mentioned: “O people, most surely
 Al-Daynawari, p. 303.
the affair over which I and Mu’awiya have differed is a right (of mine). I am going to leave the right to set right the community’s affair and to spare its blood!” An example of his taking care of that is that he advised his brother al-Husayn when the inevitable moment of death came to him, saying: “I swear by Allah that you should not shed even a bit of blood in carrying out my command.”
Certainly the most lovable thing to Imam al-Hasan (a.s) was keeping the Muslims’ blood, spreading security and peace among them. He spared no effort to achieve that.
Imam al-Hasan (a.s) came to know that if he had fought against Mu’awiya, then the Iraqi rogues would have handed him over to Mu’awiya as a prisoner of war. Most likely Mu’awiya would not kill him, rather he would release him and recorded for him a laudable deed and favor against all the Hashimites, that he might remove from him the shame due to the fact that he (Mu’awiya) and his father (Abu Sufyan) were prisoners of war. As for al-Hasan (a.s) he has mentioned that, saying: “If I fought against Mu’awiya, they would seize me by the neck and peacefully hand me over to him. By Allah, if I made peace with him while I was powerful, it would be better for me than that when he would kill me and I was a captive, or he would be kind to me, and it would be shame on the Hashimites for ever. Mu’awiya and his children would remind the living and the dead from among us of it.”
This reason was too remarkable, for the Imam wanted his opponent not to gain any favor or laudable deed through him.
Events of al-Mada’in
Among the reasons that prompted Imam al-Hasan to make peace with Mu’awiya is the severe events that he faced in al-Mada’in. We have mentioned that in detail. Yet it is important for us to summarize them as follows:
1. The treason of the leaders
and prominent persons and their communication with Mu’awiya,
These are some factors that moved Imam al-Hasan to make peace with Mu’awiya. As far as we know that they required him to make peace and not to open a door to war against Mu’awiya.
The Prophetic Traditions
The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, predicted the events that would happen after him. He saw them in reality, not in pictures and forms. He saw that disasters would spread over his community, troubles and misfortunes would befall it. He saw that his community would reach the lowest level of deterioration and backwardness, and that saving them from the bitter condition would be through the hands of his elder grandson, Imam al-Hasan, peace be on him. So he has said his immortal statement: “Most surely, this (grand) son of mine is a master. Perhaps through him Allah will make peace between two great groups of the Muslims.”
This tradition was impressed in Imam al-Hasan’s inner self from his early childhood. It appeared before him during that terrible attitude. Most surely he (al-Hasan) was sure of his grandfather’s tradition just as he was sure of the Qur’an. His grandfather said to him so. It was as if his holy voice sounded in his ear. He said to his pure mother. He said on his pulpit. He said among his companions and said on many occasions: “Most surely, this (grand) son of mine is a master. Perhaps through him Allah will make peace between two groups of the Muslims.”
This memory reacted strongly in his soul. In al-Mada’in he remembered what his grandfather, may Allah bless him and his family, suffered. That was when he saw two groups of the Muslims fighting against each other:
The first group included his followers (Shia) from among the good, righteous Muslims who understood the true objectives of Islam.
The second group was composed of the naïve, the simple-minded, and those who deviated from Islam. Although they were rebels and they revolted against the Imam of their time, they claimed that they were Muslims. If the war had broken out between them, it would have destroyed many of them, and through that the entity of Islam would have been weak and its forces would have been collapsed. Then who, from the Muslims, would stand against the enemy who was watching the events to attack them. I (the author) wonder who would take care of Islam and protect the Muslims other than the Prophet’s grandson and his inheritor. Accordingly, Imam al-Hasan preferred peace to war regardless of the hardships. Shams al-Deen al-Siqqli, died 565 A. H., maintained that the
 We have mentioned the sources of the tradition in the first part of the book, p. 81.
reason which moved al-Hasan to abdicate the caliphate was the tradition of the Prophet (a.s) concerning that.
Narrators have claimed that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, talked to his companions about the period of the Islamic caliphate, saying to them: “Most surely the caliphate after me will continue for thirty years, and then it will be monarchy.” They noticed that al-Hasan made peace with Mu’awiya when the thirty years was over, as they said.
Al-Hasan carefully considered the tradition of his grandfather (a.s) and came to know that there was no escape from that Mu’awiya would undertake the authority. Besides, his father had told him about that as imam al-Hasan (a.s) himself narrated: “One day my father said to me: ‘O Hasan, how will you behave if the Umayyads undertake this authority? Their ruler will be wide-necked and big-bellied. He eats but he will not be satisfied. He will control the west and east. The people will follow him. His kingdom will last long. He will legislate heresies and misguidance. He will deaden the truth and the Sunna of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. He will divide the property among the people of his and withhold it from those who are worthy of it. The believers will be abased in his kingdom, and the sinners will be powerful during his supreme authority. He will make his supporters succeed one another in respect of the property. He will regard Allah’s servants as slaves. During his reign the truth will be effaced, and falsehood will appear. He will kill those who oppose him for the truth.”
Most surely the Prophet and his guardian Imam Ali looked through the veil of the unseen and knew the ordeals and the tribulation with which the community were afflicted. That is because the members of the community turned away from supporting the truth and fighting against falsehood. For this reason, the freed prisoners of war and their children undertook the authority
 Anba’ Nujaba’ al-Abnaa’, p. 56.
 Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 41. I (the author) think that this tradition is fabricated. That is because the caliphate became a biting king during the days of ‘Uthman, who changed its concept and preferred the Umayyads to others in respect of the properties and government. He prepared to them forces to make them ready to fight against the Commander of the faithful (Imam Ali). The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, talked about the form of the government after him, saying: “Most surely the beginning of your religion is prophethood and mercy, then it would be a king and fatalism.” (The tradition) has been narrated by al-Sayuti in his Tarikh al-Khulafa’, p. 6. His tradition became true. That is because the begging of the religion was prophethood and mercy, and then it changed during the time of the Umayyads into kingdom, tyranny, and fatalism.
 Bihar al-Anwar.
over them, treated them unjustly, possessed alone the wealth of Allah, and regarded people as salves.
As for Mu’awiya, he came to know that the authority would reach him during the time of Imam Ali. That was when he made a premise through which he asked him about to whom the authority would pass. He sent to him some of his companions to Kufa to rumor that Mu’awiya had died. Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, heard of that; and the people repeatedly talked about that rumor. So he (a.s) Said: “You have announced the death of Mu’awiya very much! By Allah, he has not died! He will not die until he will possess that which is under my feet!”
When Mu’awiya heard of that, he believed it. For he had come to know that Imam Ali was the Gate of the City of the Prophet’s knowledge, and the Store of his secrets, that his speech did not remain behind the reality and did not miss the truth.
Anyway the Muslims gave Imam al-Hasan (a.s) the name of the great reformer because of his making peace with Mu’awiya. It is worth mentioning that his grandfather the Apostle had given him this name before.
Some great religious scholars have mentioned the peacemaking of Imam al-Hasan, peace be on him. They have justified it through infallibility saying that the infallible Imam did not make any mistake and did nothing except that which brought about good and righteousness to the community. Perhaps the points we have mentioned have indicated the meaning of this speech and explained that it is good. That is because of the conditions that surrounded the Imam and forced him to make peace with Mu’awiya. Now we will mention some of those who have maintained this viewpoint. They are:
1. Al-Shareef al-Murtadha
Al-Shareef al-Murtadha Alam al-Huda, may Allah have mercy on him, has said: “It has been established that he (al-Hasan) is infallible and strengthened with manifest proofs and strong signs. Therefore, there is no escape form
 Al-Mas‘udi Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 295.
 Al-Shareef al-Murtada, is Ali bin al-Husayn. His very clear lineage reaches the Imam of the Muslims, Musa bin Ja‘far, peace be on him. He was the head of al-Talibiyyin. He was given the nickname of al-Murtada and ‘Alam al-Huda (the Flag of Guidance). He was born in the year 355 A. H. and died in the year 436. He was older than his brother al-Shareef al-Radi. Abu Ja‘far al-Tusi has said: “(Al-Shareef) al-Murtada was unique in many sciences. There is an unanimous agreement on his excellence and has given precedence in many sciences such as theology,
submission to his deeds though they have something whose meaning is not known in detail or has a surface from which people keep away.”
2. Sayyid Ibn Tawus
In his will to his son, the genius of Islam, the great Sayyid Ibn Tawus, may Allah rest him in peace, has justified Imam al-Hasan’s peacemaking trough infallibility and some of the reasons we have mentioned. He, may Allah have mercy on him, said to his son: “It is not strange that the people criticized your grandfather for his making peace with Mu’awiya while he did that according to the command of his grandfather. His grandfather (Muhammad) had made peace with the unbelievers, and his excuse in respect of that was the clearest of all excuses. When his brother al-Husayn rose to support the Iraqis, to respond to their request, and to leave making peace with Yazid, they were either a killer or a deserter. It is worth mentioning that we have not known that they became angry during the days of Yazid for that horrible murder. Nor did they revolt against him nor did they remove him from his authority; whereas they became angry for Abdullah bin al-Zubayr and helped him with his misguidance. So they were exposed out of this large contradictory attitude; their bad choice made the misfortune appear. Therefore is it regarded as unlikely the deviation of these
jurisprudence, the fundamentals of jurisprudence, literature, and the like. He has a collection of poems containing more than ten thousand (poetry) lines. He has many books on various sciences.” This has been mentioned in (the book) Mu‘jam al-Udaba’, vol. 13, p. 146.
 Tanzeeh al-Anbiya’, p. 69.
 Ibn Tawus is a great, perfect Sayyid, a worshipper, and mujahid. (His full name is) Radi al-Deen Abu al-Qasim bin Ali bin Musa bin Ja‘far bin Tawus al-Hasani, al-Husayni. He was given the nickname of al-Tawus because he was handsome and his legs were coarse. He lived in al-Hillah (a city in Iraq). He is among the magnified Sayyids and one of the heads. He has many books. All his good qualities and sciences have been collected by al-Hujjah al-Thabt Muhammed al-Khunsari in his Roudaat al-Jinaan, vol. 3, pp.43-47. In the book al-Kuna wa al-Al-Qaab it has been mentioned: “He (al-Sayyid bin Tawus) undertook the union of the Talibiyyin. He used to sit in a green dome and was visited by the people who dressed in green instead of black. That was after the Battle of Baghdad.” In respect of that Ali bin Hamza has said:
This is Ali, the (grand) son of Musa bin Ja‘far the like of Ali, the son of Musa bin Ja‘far.
That was dressed in green for the Imamate, and this was dressed in green for the union.
By that he meant Imam al-Rida, peace be on him, when he undertook the succession (after al-Ma’mun) and was dressed in green. Al- Sayyid bin Tawus died on Monday, 5th Dhi al-Qu‘da in the year 664 A. H.
people from the straight path while they reached this ill, ugly condition?”
Sayyid Ibn Tawus, may Allah have mercy on him, has justified Imam al-Hasan’s peacemaking with (firstly) infallibility from mistakes. He compared his peacemaking with the peacemaking of his grandfather the Prophet (a.s) with the polytheists in the Peace Treaty of al-Hudaybiya. There is no doubt about the peacemaking of the Apostle and none can criticize it due to the existence of the interest. And so is that of al-Hasan with his opponent, for it was surrounded by the inclusive interest of Muslims in general. Secondly, he justified it with the tribulation and ordeal the Imam suffered from those devious people who paid no attention to virtue and did not understand any of the spiritual values. Therefore, it was they who forced Imam al-Hasan to make peace. Sayyid ibn Tawus has offered reasons for the bad manners of those people and their going too far in practicing evil deeds. That was when they followed Yazid (son of Mu’awiya), who drank wine, and practiced dissoluteness openly. They also supported him and took part with him in the most horrible crime history has ever recorded, which was the murder of the master of the youths of the Garden, al-Husayn, peace be on him. They showed neither sorrow nor sadness at this crime. They did not revolt against Yazid nor did they remove him from his office. In the previous researches we have mentioned the reasons for these lowly manners of the Iraqi masses.
Showing the Umayyad Reality
Before he took the reins of government, Mu’awiya was apparently committed to the Islamic teachings. He affected taking care of the Muslims’ affairs. However, that was, without doubt, hypocrisy and a plot. He walked slowly to hunt the game as they say. He concealed unbelief and hypocrisy. He harbored evil and enmity against the Muslims. So through his making peace with him, Imam al-Hasan (a.s) wanted to show his reality and to show the people his defects and plot. He wanted to make those whom he deceived know that he was the most hostile to Islam. As a result he left the field and handed over the authority to him. However, suddenly the Khousrow of the Arabs, as they say, showed his hellish policy through opposing Allah’s Book, and the Sunna of His Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. He violated the Islamic teachings, destroyed the abilities of Islam, and ruined the knowledgeable forces. He showered them with various kinds of painful torture. He executed and severely punished whomever he wished. He forced the Muslims to disown the family of their Prophet, to curse them openly and to disparage them on the
 Kashf al-Muhjah li Thamrat al-Muhjah, p. 46. It contains valuable commandments to his son.
pulpits. Through that the hidden things of his soul appeared. The Muslims came to know this tyrant and what he schemed against them. If the peacemaking had had no benefit except showing that, it would have been sufficient, just as Imam Kashif al-‘Ghita’, may Allah have mercy on him, has said in his introduction to the book.
After Mu’awiya had taken the reins of government, he carried a destructive axe and began destroying all the Islamic foundations attempting to extinguish the light of Islam, to fold its standard, to efface and uproot it, and to return the pre-Islamic life. Before we deal with some of his offences and bad manners through which he had blackened the face of history, we have to mention what have been reported from his parents from among malice and enmity against Islam. We also have to mention what have been narrated from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, from among the traditions on disparaging and dispraising Mu’awiya. That is because we want to understand whether he was worthy of being entrusted with the authority, being imposed as a ruler over the Muslims, and of acting freely in respect of whatever he pleased without any reckon and supervision. We mention that to readers as follows:
Abu Sufyan and Hind
As for Abu Sufyan, he was the bitterest enemy to the Prophet (a.s). It was he who led the allies, helped the Jews, and supported all the forces hostile to Islam. His malice toward the Prophet (a.s) doubled when some of his family and seventy valiant Qurayshi polytheists were killed at the Battle of Badr. So his sinful soul was full of sadness at them. He went on fighting against the Apostle (a.s), and moved against him the spites. But Allah repelled his plot. That was when he gave victory to His Apostle, strengthened His religion, abased Abu Sufyan and his party. Accordingly, the Prophet (a.s), conquered Mecca and entered it successfully and victoriously. He destroyed and smashed the idols. As for Abu Sufyan, he reluctantly embraced Islam. He was low and defeated. Shame and disgrace followed him. Though he became a Muslim, he maintained his pre-Islamic beliefs. Islam changed nothing of his natures and manners. His house was a place of treason; and he was a cave of hypocrisy.
When the Muslims suffered the loss of the Prophet (a.s) and when Abu Bakr usurped the caliphate, Abu Sufyan went to Imam Ali (a.s). Abu Sufyan asked Imam Ali (a.s) to revolt and to fight against Abu Bakr, that he might return the caliphate to him. He had no faith in the right of Imam Ali (a.s); rather he
through that wanted to find a gap through which he wanted to destroy and ruin Islam. However his wicked intentions were clear to the Imam, and he turned away from and rebuked him. After that Abu Sufyan kept to the corners of inactivity. The Muslims looked at him with the looking of suspicion and doubt about his faith. When ‘Uthman became a caliph and brought nigh the Umayyads and entrusted them with the Muslims’ affairs, Abu Sufyan appeared, his star went high, he showed his spites and enmity toward the Prophet. One day he stood by the grave of Hamza, the master of the martyrs, peace be on him. He looked at it through his hollow eyes. Then he moved his lips, saying: “O Abu Immarah, most surely, the affair for which we met in duel yesterday is in the hands of our boys; they are playing with it!”
Then he kicked the holy grave with his leg and went tranquilly and delighted. All these things happened before the very eyes of ‘Uthman but he neither blamed nor punished him. So we belong to Allah and to him we will return!
This is the reality of Abu Sufyan in his unbelief and his malice toward Islam. As for his wife Hind, she was not less than her husband in cruelty. She was more malicious than him toward Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. She moved the polytheists to fight against him. When the Battle of Badr was over and her polytheist family and relatives were killed, she did not show mourning and sadness at them. That is because she wanted through that to provoke Quraysh to avenge their blood. The Qurayshi women came to her and said: “Why do you not lament for your father, bother, uncle, and your household?”
She angrily answered them, saying: “If I lament (for them), Muhammad and his companions will heard of that; they will gloat over us and the womenfolk of the Banu al-Khazrajj! No, by Allah, (I will not lament for them) until I take vengeance on Muhammad and His companions! It is forbidden for me to oil my head until we invade Muhammad! By Allah, if I came to know that sadness went away from my heart, I would weep! But nothing drives it away until I see with my own eye that my vengeance on those who killed my beloved ones is taken!”
 The people before Islam used to delay their lamentation over their killed until they took their vengeance. When it was taken, their womenfolk lamented for them. In this respect their poet say:
Whoever is delighted at the murder of Malik, then let him come to our womenfolk in broad daylight!
He will find our womenfolk bare (headed). They lament for him (and) scratch their hot cheeks in the early mornings!
Subh al-A‘sha, vol. 1, p. 405.
Hind went on her condition. She did not show sadness. She did not approach Abu Sufyan’s bed and did not oil her hair until the Battle of Uhd happened. She took vengeance on Hamza, the master of the martyrs. She maimed him and did to him that ugly deed. Then she showed delight and rejoicing. Then she composed poetry, saying:
I satisfied myself (for revenge) at (the Battle) of Uhd.
That was when I split open his stomach (and cut off) his
When Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, saw what Hind did to his uncle, he became angry and burnt with grief. Then he said: “No attitude made me angry as this one did!” He also said: “I have never been stricken by anything like by Hamza!”
When the day of the conquest came and the Muslims entered Mecca, Abu Sufyan walked through the streets and lanes. He unwillingly called out: “Whoever lays down his weapon is safe! Whoever enters his house is safe! And whoever enters Abu Sufyan’s house is safe!” When Hind heard that from him, she scratched her face and unwillingly shouted: “Kill the wicked, dirty one! How ugly the head (chief) of the people is!”
Then she turned to the masses and provoked them. She enthusiastically said:
“Why did you not fight for your own city and defend yourselves?”
Through that she tried to move the anger of the people and to kindle the fire of the revolt among her people. However Allah repelled her plot and frustrated her effort. That was when Allah gave a victory to Islam and its men. These are Mu’awiya’s parents. According to the hereditary rule, I (the author) definitely think that what was settled in their souls from among malice, hatred, and hostility to Islam and Allah’s Apostle (a.s), passed to Mu’awiya. Besides, Allah’s Apostle met all the Umayyads with disdain and disrespect because of what he had met from them of tiredness and pain. He ordered them to be exiled from Yathrib (Medina) such as al-Hakam, his son Marwan, Sa‘eed bin al-‘Aas, and al-Waleed. He ordered the Muslims to avoid them and to call them the accursed tree. These things that Mu’awiya saw brought about in his soul malice against the Prophet (a.s) and his Household.
 Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p. 342.
 Ibid., p. 387.
The Prophetic Traditions about Mu’awiya
Many authentic traditions have been narrated from the Prophet in respect of dispraising and disdaining Mu’awiya. Some traditions are as follows:
1. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said: “A man will come out of this mountain pass. He will be mustered (in a manner) other than (that) of my community.” So Mu’awiya came out.
2. Allah’s Apostle (a.s) saw Abu Sufyan riding a donkey, his son Mu’awiya leading the donkey, and his son Yazid driving it. He said: “May Allah curse the leader, the rider, and the driver.”
3. Al-Barra’ bin ‘Aazib narrated: “Abu Sufyan came forward and Mu’awiya was with him, so Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said: ‘O Allah, take al-Uqay‘is!’” Al-Barra’ asked his father about al-Uqay‘is, and he answered: “He is Mu’awiya.”
4. A woman came to the Prophet (a.s) and consulted him in respect of marrying Mu’awiya. He prohibited her and said to her: “He (Mu’awiya) is low.”
5. Abu Barzah al-Aslami has narrated: “We were with Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. We heard singing. A man rose and listened to it. That had been before the wine was prohibited. The man came to us and told us that Mu’awiya and Amr Ibn al-‘Aas answered each other through this verse of poetry:
 Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 11, p. 357. Nasr bin Muzahim has narrated in his Kitab Siffin, p. 247, that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said: “A man will come to you from this mountain pass. When he dies, he dies in (a manner) other than my Sunna.”
 Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 11, p. 357. Imam al-Hasan, the Prophet grandson, peace be on him, narrated the tradition from his grandfather. Nasr bin Muzahim has mentioned it in his Kitab Siffin, p. 247.
 Nasr bin Muzahim, Kitab Siffin, p. 244. Imam al-Hasan also narrated it.
 Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat, vol. 8, 200. Asas al-Ghaba, vol. 5, p. 527. Tarikh al-Khamis, vol. 2, p. 29.
 Abu Barzah al-Aslami is Naddlah bin ‘Ubayd. He was a companion of Allah’s Apostle. He narrated (traditions) from him and Abu Bakr. Some other traditionists reported (traditions) on his authority. Ibn Sa‘d has said: “He lived in Medina, and then he (lived) in Basrah. He invaded Khurasan.” Al-Khatib has said: “He witnessed (the Battle of al-Nahrawan). He fought against the Kharijites at (the Battle of) al-Nahrawan. After that he invaded Khurasan and died in it.” It was said that he died in Nisabur; it was said (that he died) in Basrah; other than that was said. Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 10, p. 446.
“When Allah’s Apostle heard of that, he raised his hands to supplicate, saying: ‘O Allah, throw them into sedotion! O Allah, drive them away to the fire with violence!” He said to Mu’awiya: “You will take, O Mu’awiya, the heresy as sunna (law) and the ugly as good!”
Allah’s Apostle (a.s) looked through the unseen and came to know that Mu’awiya would undertake the affairs of the government. Accordingly, he warned the Muslims and ordered them to fight against him. He said to them: “When you see Mu’awiya make a speech from on my pulpit, then behead him!”
When al-Hasan (a.s) narrated this tradition, he became displeased and said: “They did not do nor did they succeed!”
In this manner during the lifetime of the Prophet (a.s), Mu’awiya was humiliated,, low, and abased. Shame and disgrace followed him. The Prophet (a.s) cursed him. The Muslims disdained and disparaged him. When ‘Umar became caliph, he turned away from what had been reported from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, in respect of Mu’awiya. He brought him nigh to him. He promoted him after lowliness and humiliation. He appointed him as a governor over Sham. He gave him wide authorities, entrusted to him the affair of judgeship, prayer, collecting taxes, and the like from among the affairs that required trustworthiness and justice. He loved and directed him so much that he reckoned his governors and looked into their acts every year except Mu’awiya. He did not reckon him nor did he watch him. It was said to ‘Umar that Mu’awiya deviated from the straight path, wasted the wealth, and wore silk garments, but he paid no attention to that; rather he gave him the
 Waqi‘at Siffin, p. 246. Ahmed, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 421.
 Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 4, p. 79.
 The devious have narrated the tradition in another way. For example al-Khatib, in his Tarikh, has narrated on the authority of Jabir, who said: “Allah’s Apostle said: ‘If you see Mu‘awiya make speech from on my pulpit, then accept him, for he is faithful.” In his Tarikh al-Hakim has narrated on the authority of Ibn Mas‘ud who said: [Allah’s Apostle said:] “If you see Mu‘awiya on my pulpit, then accept him, for he is faithful and trustworthy.” When was the son of Hind (Mu‘awiya) faithful and trustworthy? Was that through his fighting against Allah’s Apostle? Or through his going too far in shedding the Muslims’ blood, killing the good and righteous people, and the like from among the heavy events that indicate that he had the beliefs of those lived before Islam, and that he paid no attention to the religion?
 Waqi‘at Siffin.
garment of pomp and glory, saying: “That (Mu’awiya) is the Khousrow of the Arabs!” When he distorted the rules of the Consultative Committee to remove the Household of the Prophet (a.s) from the government and to participate the Umayyads in the rule, he praised Mu’awiya and inspired into him the spirit of ambition. He was then at the last days of his life. He said to the members of the Consultative Committee: “If you envy each other, tarry one another, be hostile to each other, and hate one another, Mu’awiya will overcome you for this (authority). At that time he (Mu’awiya) was the governor of Sham.”
‘Umar’s governors were many. Why did he praise Mu’awiya and exclude them? How was it possible for him to threaten the members of the Consultative Committee through his power while they had high positions near the Prophet (a.s) who died while he was pleased with them, as it was? If he had fear for them from Mu’awiya, then why did he reserve him in the government? Most surely these affairs make one ask questions and find them strange!
Anyway, ‘Umar preferred Mu’awiya to others, and Mu’awiya was the most beloved to ‘Umar. An example of his preferring him and showing love toward him was what Muslim bin Jundub narrated on the authority of Aslam, ‘Umar’s retainer, who said: “We went to Mu’awiya. He was the most tender-skinned and the most handsome. He performed the hajj with ‘Umar. ‘Umar looked at him and admired him. He put his finger on his back and raised it as he raised it from the shoelace. Then he said: ‘Bravo! Bravo! Therefore, we are the best of the people if the good in the world and the hereafter is gathered for us!’” In this manner ‘Umar loved Mu’awiya.
When ‘Uthman became a caliph, he increased the area of Mu’awiya’s authority and reinforced his influence. We have explained that in the first part of the book. Accordingly, Mu’awiya did in Sham as if he wanted the domain and the supreme authority. When the Muslims killed ‘Uthman for his unwanted, heavy doings, Mu’awiya used his (Uthman) murder as means to achieve his purposes and objectives. So he rebelled against Imam Ali (a.s) claiming that he was satisfied with the murder of ‘Uthman and gave a refuge to those who killed him. Misfortunes and ordeals with which Islam was afflicted followed that, and through which the unity of the Muslims was divided. So the sorrowful events brought about his victory, deserting Imam Ali and his son Imam al-Hasan.
 Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 1, p. 187.
 Samt al-Nujoom al-‘Awali, vol. 3, p. 48.
To Be Continued ..