The research about the kings with whom the Imām, peace be on him, coincided, is, according to modern studies, an important matter, for it reveals the programs of their general policy. The psychologists say that political events affect all the branches of life including the general conduct of every citizen.
The kings with whom the Imām, peace be on him, coincided belonged to the Umayyad family, who, according to the laws of genetics and education, gave life to the opinions and traditions of those who lived before Islam. Hence many Umayyad kings did their best to curb the Islamic development and deaden the religious awareness of the Muslims. Now, we will briefly speak about their affairs and trends.
Mu‘āwiya b. Abi Sufyān was the first king with whom Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, coincided. He practiced a black policy against the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them, and their followers. He intended to uproot the pure family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household, and to kill their followers and those who believed in their political rights as well as he spread fear and terror all over the Islamic world in order to force the Muslims to submit to abasement and bondage. The Imām was in the bloom of youth when he witnessed this policy of Mu‘āwiya. We will briefly mention some of Mu‘āwiya’s affairs.
Before we speak about Mu‘āwiya’s affairs, we want to talk
quickly about his parents, that it may be clear for us that he inherited
malice against Islam from his parents whose souls were full of ignorance and enmity toward all human values.
As for his father Abū Sufyān, he was the most mortal enemy of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Because he detested him, he employed all his possessions to suppress the Islamic Message and to destroy it in the cradle. He waged war against him and led the armies at the Battle of Badr. However Allah, the Exalted, supported His Prophet and exalted His religion. He wrote disappointment and loss against Abū Sufyān, who took to flight when his troops were defeated.
As for his mother Hind, her evil heart was filled with malice and hatred against the greatest Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. After the crushing defeat that afflicted the Army of Abū Sufyān at the Battle of Badr, she became very sad for the members of her family whom she lost at the battle. Hence she provoked the young and the old, male and female, to demand vengeance for their dead and to get ready for another battle. Accordingly, the Battle of Uhud occurred. At it Hamza, the Prophet’s uncle, and seventy Muslim heroes were martyred. Had it not for Allah’s gentleness and bounty, the Message of Islam would have been destroyed. The hero of Islam- Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him-defended the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and protected him with his own soul. Hind, Mu‘āwiya’s mother, maimed the corpse of the great martyr, Hamza. With this she took her vengeance. She refreshed her heart, rested her eye, and quenched her spites. Abū Sufyān won victory and returned to Mecca.
After the Battle of Uhud, the Prophet, may Allah bless
him and his Household, returned to Medina (Yathrib). There he gathered his
troops and prepared them to conquer Mecca, which was the only center of his
enemies. With Allah’s help and support he was able to conquer it without
shedding blood, and then he pardoned his enemies in general. With this he was
able to show the mercy of Islam, its
kindness and dignity. He, may Allah bless him and his family, did not follow the international practices which permit destroying the aggressors. He included all the aggressors in his mercy. Among those whom his pardon included was Abū Sufyān and the members of his family, who stayed at the corners of abasement and laziness, and upon whom the Muslims looked down, for they were the defeated enemies and opponents of Islam.
Mu‘āwiya was one of those prisoners who were released on the Day of the Conquer of Mecca. He was a pauper and walked bare-footed beside the saddlebags of ‘Alqama b. Wā’il al-Hadrami. A woman counseled with the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, in order to marry Mu‘āwiya, and he scolded her, saying: “Mu‘āwiya is a pauper.”
As Islam abased the Umayyads and destroyed their glory, they harbored malice against it, showed enmity toward it, and planed by day and night to destroy it. In this connection the Holy Hadith says: “If there would be only one toothless old woman from the Umayyads, she would spare no effort to ruin Allah’s religion.”
As for Mu‘āwiya’s qualities, they are as follows:
Mu‘āwiya’s heart was void of kindness and mercy. It was
cruel, polluted, and filled with crimes. It was Mu‘āwiya who empowered Bisr b.
Abi Artāt and commanded him to kill all those who followed the creed of Imām
‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, which is Allah’s creed.
Hence Bisr b. Artāt, who was an ignoble aggressor, killed them and their wives
and their children. For
 Al-Bayqahi, al-Mahāsin wa al-Masāwi', vol. 1, p. 29.
Accordingly, a lady said to him: “The ruler who kills women and children is wicked.”
Treason was among Mu‘āwiya’s prominent qualities. Mu‘āwiya, who had pre-Islamic opinions, did not believe in keeping promise and other humane values. For example, he offered conditions to the pure Imām al-Hasan b. ‘Ali, peace be on them, and then he broke them all in a shameful manner. He addressed the people, saying: “Indeed I have been requested by al-Hasan (to give him) things and I have given things to him. All of them are now under my foot. And from now on I will not fulfill anything.”
Mu‘āwiya was an evil liar. He was not accustomed to truthfulness. He lied to the Syrians and seduced them when he told them that he was the nearest of all the people to the great Prophet and his inheritor. He lied to them when he told them that Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, killed ‘Uthmān b. ‘Affān, that he demanded his blood. He told them a lie when he told them that Imām ‘Ali killed ‘Ammār b. Yāsir, the great companion (of the Prophet), at the Battle of Siffin. He was very fond of lying to the extent that he formed committees from among the pseudo clergy men to create traditions and to ascribe them to Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his Household. He ordered them to praise the companions (of the Prophet) and to degrade the importance of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them. Moreover, he adopted lying and took it as a method for his life and constitution for his state.
Deception was among Mu‘āwiya’s qualities. He deceived a
grouped of the Muslims at whose head was Imām al-Hasan, peace be on him, the
plant of sweet basil of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless
him and his family, and his grandson. He appointed him as his successor, but he broke his promise. He sent deadly poison to his governor Marwān b. al-Hakam and ordered him to give it to al-Hasan. Hence Marwān seduced al-Hasan’s wife, Ju‘da, daughter of al-Ash‘ath, and she gave her husband poison to drink. Shortly after this the Messenger’s grandson joined the Highest Comrade.
These are some of Mu‘āwiya’s qualities. It is certain that he had no noble moral trait or inclination.
Some mercenaries and pseudo clergy men described Mu‘āwiya with false qualities such as cleverness, clemency, and good policy. Among them was Nāfi‘ b. Jubayr, who said: “Clemency makes Mu‘āwiya keep silent, and knowledge makes him speak.” When Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, heard these words, he refuted them saying: “He (Nāfi‘ b. Jubayr) has told a lie. The incapability of speaking makes him keep silent, and ingratitude makes him speak.”
If Mu‘āwiya had had an atom of clemency, he would not have killed Hijr b. ‘Adi, the great companion (of the Prophet), and his companions, who sacrificed their souls for Islam. If he had had clemency, he would not have killed ‘Amr b. al-Hamq al-Kh āz‘i, the great companion (of the Prophet). If he had had a bit of clemency, good policy and management, he would not have imposed his son Yazid, the drunkard one, as a caliph on the Muslims, and he thrown them into continuous afflictions.
The mercenaries and pseudo clergy men said that Mu‘āwiya was a writer of the Revelation. How did the Messenger entrusted the Revelation of the Lord of the worlds to Mu’āwiya, who had pre-Islamic beliefs, and turned away from the Guidance and Truth? Whoever carefully studies his behavior finds that he was a professional terrorist, had no relationship with noble ideals and good qualities.
 A'yān al-Shi'a, vol. 5, p. 26.
The painful thing is that Mu‘āwiya was imposed as a governor over the Muslims in Damascus. He was ordered to lead them in prayer, to rule among them according to What Allah had sent down, and to undertake collecting their zakāt and land taxes, while he was not appropriate for such an office. It is worth mentioning that Islam took precautions against appointing governors; rather all officials. It made it incumbent (on the caliph) to study their life and to consider carefully their behavior, their tendencies, and their inclinations. It ordered him to appoint those who were pious, pure, and noble in their souls and among their people, and had knowledge of the affairs of management and government. Moreover it urged him to refrain from appointing those who had no religion, had bad behavior, and were ignoble in soul and lineage.
As for appointing Mu‘āwiya as a governor over Damascus, which was then among the sensitive centers in the Islamic world, it did not result from studying his life and considering his works. Rather it resulted from some political inclinations. Any how, it has no relationship with the interests of the community. Unfortunately, the Second Caliph (‘Umar b. al-Khattāb) brought him near and went too far in supporting him. Although he heard that Mu‘āwiya wore silk garments and used plates made of silver and gold, and turned away from the Islamic teachings, he apologized on behalf of him saying: “Mu‘āwiya is the Kasrā of the Arabs.” How wonderful! Is there Kasrāsim or Caesarism in Islam? All Muslims know that Islam has played an important role in abolishing all kinds of racism, treated its followers equally, and distinguished between them according to Allah-fearingness and good deeds of which is serving and developing the Islamic society.
The Umayyads employed a policy full of deception in order to reach authority and loot the wealth of the community. They were supported by the Arab and Qurayshi capitalists, who did their best to keep their personal interests, which they lost during the days of the government of Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and pioneer of social justice on the earth. Hence Mu‘āwiya was able to hold the reins of government. Nichalson said: “The Muslims regarded the victory of the Umayyads headed by Mu‘āwiya as victory of the pagan aristocracy which showed enmity toward the Messenger, against which the Messenger struggled and destroyed; the Muslims were patient along with him until Allah granted them a victory, hence they ruined it, and established on its debris the pillars of Islam, the tolerant religion which made people equal in prosperity and adversity.” Mu‘āwiya trod on the Moslems’ necks. He drowned the country into black afflictions and dangerous events. He openly challenged the Moslems’ will. He spared no effort to abase them, deprived them of their freedom, and withheld them from all the rights confessed by the international and human customs. The following is some of the unjust ways he practiced against the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them, and their followers, who were the source of awareness and thought in Islam:
Mu‘āwiya employed all mean ways to extinguish the light
of the family of Mohammed, may Allah bless him and his family, to prevent them
from communicating with the community, and to deprive the community of their
noble moral traits. Hence he created an atmosphere of atrocious terrorism
against those who mentioned their virtues and laudable deeds. Besides he
officially declared abusing
 The History of Islam, vol. 1, p. 278.
Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, who was the greatest thinker in Islam. Accordingly, the mercenaries and pseudo clergy men competed with each other for abusing him on their pulpits and during Friday prayers. Yet the behavior of Imām ‘Ali, peace be on him, chased Mu‘āwiya and followed him in his palaces, for it led to mutiny against oppression and tyranny, and opened noble horizons to political and religious awareness.
Mu‘āwiya politically decided to eliminate and uproot the followers and friends of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them. Hence he wrote to all his governors to pursue and kill all those who loved the family of Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family. Besides he commanded them to stop their salaries, confiscate their properties, and to imprison them in dark prisons. Accordingly, his terrorist governors spared no effort to carry out his commands. The Shi‘ites of the ahl al-Bayt lived in a state of fear and terror. Some men preferred calling them unbelievers to calling them the lovers of the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and to showing friendship toward them. This is because they wanted to save them selves from murdering and punishing. Mu‘āwiya ordered a group of great Muslim figures to be executed. Examples of them were Hijr b. ‘Adi, Rashid al-Hijri, ‘Amr b. al-Hamq al-Khazā‘i, and others. They had no guilt except that they showed friendship toward the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them.
Mu‘āwiya appointed over the Islamic countries a band of
traitors and criminals such as Ziyād b. Abih, al-Mughira b. Shu‘ba, and Bisr
b. Abi Artāt. These persons deviated from (Islam), understood nothing except
murdering, destruction, and aggression against men. Ziyād b. Abih declared his
black policy toward Iraq saying: “I will punish the innocent because of the
guilty, and the
comers because of those who turned away (from me). I will punish (you) even for suspicion and accusation.” He turned the life in Iraq, in his time, into inferno to the extent that he made the people say to each other: “Sa‘d, save yourself, for Sa‘id has been perished!”
Mu‘āwiya ended his life through the worst crime when he appointed his corrupt son, Yazid, as a ruler over the Muslims. Being corrupt, Yazid spared no effort to deviate the Muslims from their religion and life in this world. He ruled among them according to the pre-Islamic beliefs. He turned the life in the Islamic world into unbearable inferno, and committed atrocities to the extent that he has blackened the Arab and Islamic history.
Some Muslims expressed their unfavorable impressions of Mu‘āwiya in his time. They are as follows:
‘Abd Allah b. ‘Abbās, a great Muslim thinker, expressed his opinion of Mu‘āwiya saying: “Mu‘āwiya has no quality to bring him near to the Caliphate.”
Sa‘sa‘a bin Sohān al-‘Abdi, a great Mujāhid, met Mu‘āwiya in the days of his government, and he asked him: “Which Caliph you have seen me?”
Sa‘sa‘a answered him courageously, saying: “He who rules
the people by force, governs over them with pride, and sizes (power) with the
means of falsehood, lying, and trickery, is not a caliph! By Allah, at the
Battle of Badr, you had neither a sword nor an arrow! You and
 Al-Mas'ūdi, Hāmish b. al-Athir, vol. 6, p. 7.
your father were among those who fought against Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family! You are a freedman, and son of a freedman. Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, released you. Therefore, how is the caliphate appropriate for a freedman?”
Al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba, Mu‘āwiya’s friend and partner in sins, came to Mu‘āwiya and heard him saying a tradition thereby he slandered the great Prophet. Hence he was dissatisfied with him, left him, went to his son Yazid, and said to him: “I have come from the most malicious of all the people!” Then he related the tradition to him.
Samra bin Jundub, who was a hypocrite and liar, was among those who were indignant with Mu‘āwiya. That was when he removed him from the office of Basrah. Hence he said: “May Allah curse Mu‘āwiya! By Allah, if I had obeyed Allah as I obeyed Mu‘āwiya, He would never had chastised me!”
With this we will end our speech about Mu‘āwiya. He who carefully considers Mu‘āwiya’s policy finds it full of acts of disobedience to Allah and His Messenger such as murdering the free, chasing the reformers, violating women, and spreading crimes and offenses.
Yazid’s government was the greatest danger the Muslim
community faced in that time. Yazid is the most abominable person in the pages
of history, and the remotest of the kings from Islam in spirit,
objective, and meaning. For he has immortalized difficulties and hardships in the way of the Muslims and thrown them into great evil.
This sinful tyrant was indifferent to all values and customs. He followed his passions and pleasures. Al-Mas‘ūdi described him saying: “He hastened to his pleasure, openly did acts of disobedience, and approved his offenses. The affair in his religion was easy for him when this world was sound for him.” Concerning him, Bolis Salām said:
The Muslims were afflicted by Yazid, who committed ugly crimes which shake human conscience, and which the Muslims have never forgotten throughout history. Examples of these crimes are that he killed Imām al-Husayn, peace be on him, the grandson of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, his plant of sweet basil, Lord of the youths of Heaven. He destroyed the Pure family of the Prophet as well as he violated Medina (the City of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family) and the Sacred House. We will mention in detail these tragedies.
Mu‘āwiya bin Yazid held the reins of government in his
bloom of youth, but he had abundant piety and reverential fear of Allah. He
thought of his life in the next world more than he thought of it in this
world. Hence he concluded that his grandfather (Mu‘āwiya) with out right
warred against Imām ‘Ali, peace be on him, who was the successor of Allah’s
Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family,
 Al-Tanbih wa al-Asrāf, p. 264.
his testamentary trustee (of authority), and the gate of the city of his knowledge. He also concluded that his father Yazid committed the most horrible crimes when he killed the males from among the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and attacked Medina. All these events made Mu‘āwiya b. Yazid renounce authority and abdicate the Caliphate before Allah and the community. Accordingly, he summoned the officials, the commanders of the army, and the rest of the classes from among the Syrians, and then he delivered an effective eloquent speech thereby he announced his abdication of the Caliphate. After he had praised and lauded Allah and called down blessings upon the great Prophet, he said:
“O Men, I am
not desirous of authority over you, for I hate you very much. I know that you
hate us too, for we have been afflicted by you, and you have been afflicted by
us. Surely, my grandfather Mu‘āwiya fought for this affair against him (Imām
‘Ali) who was more appropriate for it than him and other than him. This is
because of his nearness to Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his
family, his great excellence, his precedence (in Islam), the greatest of the
emigrants in importance, the bravest of them in heart, the most abundant of
them in knowledge, the first of them in faith, the noblest of them in rank,
and the earliest of them in companionship (to the Prophet). He (Imām ‘Ali) was
the paternal cousin of Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family,
his son-in-law, and his brother. He (the Prophet) married him to his daughter
Fātima. He appointed him a husband for her because he chose her. He appointed
her a wife for him because she chose him. He (Imām ‘Ali) was the father of his
two grandsons, the two lords of the youths of Heaven, the best (two ones) of
this community, who were brought up by the Messenger, the two sons of Fātima
the chaste, and who belonged to the good pure tree. However, my grandfather
committed against him (Imām ‘Ali) what you know, and you committed against him
that of which you are not ignorant, until the affairs went well with him. When
death came to him, he has remained as a hostage to his work, and isolated in
his grave. He has found what his hands earned, seen what he committed, and
those against whom he transgressed. Then my
father Yazid became a caliph over you according to his father’s desire. As he did evil deeds and was immoderate against himself, he was not appropriate for the Caliphate over the community of Mohammed, may Allah bless him and his family. He followed his caprice, approved his offenses, showed insolence toward Allah, and made lawful (violating) the sacredness of the children of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. Hence his period was little, his track cut off, and his work accompanied him. He has become the ally of his grave and hostage to his offenses. His sins and ill-consequences have remained. He has attained what he did. He has felt remorse, but remorse does not profit him. The grief for him has distracted us from grief over him. I wish I knew what he said, and what it was said to him! Has he been punished because of his evil deeds? Has he been repaid for his works? This is my opinion!”
Mu‘āwiya bin Yazid wept and wailed for along time, and then he turned to the people and said to them: “I have become the third of the people. Those who are dissatisfied with me are more than those who are satisfied with me. I cannot bear your sins. I do not want Allah, great be His power, to see me assuming your offenses and ill-consequences. Your authority is your affair. Take it. Appoint as a ruler over you him with whom you are content. Hence I have released your necks from the pledge of allegiance to me. Greetings!”
This speech is proof for Mu‘āwiya bin Yazid’s perfect religious awareness, for he unveiled the reality of his father and grandfather. He showed that they deviated from the straight path. I (the author) think that there is no political speech similar to this in focusing on the truth, reality, honesty, refraining from selfishness, and renouncing the world. This speech resulted from a soul full of virtues and noble ideals.
The Umayyads ran in disorder and surged in discord. They went
 Al-Dimyari, Hayāt al-Hayawān, vol. 1, pp. 61-62. Al-Nijūm al-Zāhira, vol. 1, p. 164.
to the teacher of Mu‘āwiya, accused him of teaching him friendship to the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) , peace be on them, and buried him alive. Hence chaos prevailed all parts of Syria. In this connection the poet said:
Thus, Mu‘āwiya bin Yazid, the noblest Umayyad, whom history has ever known, could destroy the dynasty of the family of Abi Sufyān.
What a farcical time! What a ridiculous fate! How did Marwān bin al-Hakam become a caliph over the Muslims? How was the important office of the Caliphate entrusted to him? Marwān bin al-Hakam and his father were cowardly persons. Because of their corrupt behavior, Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, banished them. The bad social, intellectual and religious circumstances caused to the Muslim these tragedies and misfortunes, and helped this corrupt person become a ruler over them.
Marwān was one of the destructive elements of falsehood
and hypocrisy. He had shameful qualities and anti-Islam attitudes. All the
historians unanimously agreed that Marwān was a cheating, evil person, that
the Muslims detested him and called him Khayt Bātil (the thread of falsehood).
He and his father lived in exile (at al-Tā’if) throughout the time of the
Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and the government of the two
Shaykhs (i.e. Abū Bakr and ‘Umar). They stayed there until they became hungry
and poor. When ‘Uthmān b. ‘Affān became a caliph, he summoned them to Medina
(Yathrib) brought them near to him, and spent money on them lavishly. He
trusted Marwān, appointed him a minister, and entrusted to him all the
political affairs, though he had no correct political
 Al-Dimyari, Hayāt al-Hayawān, vol. 1, p. 62.
opinion. However, it was the tribal fanaticism that moved ‘Uthman to take care of the Umayyads and the family of Abi Mi‘yat, to give to them the properties of the Muslims, and to single them out for the highest official positions. He created from them a dangerous capitalist family, such that they controlled the political affairs of the Islamic countries, and it was very difficult for the Muslims to decrease their influence and to destroy their domination.
Any how, during the days of the Caliphate of ‘Uthmān, Marwān was the absolute ruler. He moved about in the affairs of the state according to his desires. Hence the revolutionary Muslims all over the Islamic countries demanded ‘Uthman to remove him from office, but he refused their demand and insisted on clinging to him. Accordingly, the revolutionists attacked ‘Uthmān and killed him.
After the murder of ‘Uthmān, all the Muslims pledged their allegiance to Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and Pioneer of social justice on the earth. The pledge of allegiance to him was general. All the Muslims in Medina (Yathrib) and the rest of the Islamic cities celebrated it, while they did not celebrate the pledge of allegiance to the other Caliphs.
The Qurayshi capitalist forces were frightened when the
Muslims pledged allegiance to Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace
be on him. This is because they feared for the properties which they took from
the people during the government of ‘Uthmān, and which the Imām, peace be on
him, would confiscate. They held meetings and exchanged views. Then they
accused the Imām of murdering ‘Uthmān, and mutinied against him. They used
Mrs. ‘Ā’isha as a means. They adopted her as a face to seduce the mobbish whom
rumors changed from state to state, and who are the affliction of this East
throughout history. Any how, they entrusted the leadership of the movement to
‘Ā’isha, and appointed her as a commander-in-chief of the armed forces. All
the Umayyads headed by Marwān joined the rebels. They crept toward Basrah and
occupied it. Hence Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him,
headed an army and hurried to Basrah to destroy this mutiny. After the terrible battle which the historians have mentioned, the Imām’s Army could defeat ‘Ā’isha’s troops. It could captured ‘Ā’isha and her prominent commanders among whom was Marwān.
Al-Hasan and al-Husayn interceded for Marwān with their father to release him, and he pardoned him. Then Marwān and the members of his family fled to Syria, which was the stronghold of the Umayyads. He stayed with his cousin Mu‘āwiya, and joined him in waging war against the legal authority. After the terrible events and black afflictions which befell the Muslims, Mu‘āwiya could attain the Caliphate with sword and trickery. He appointed Marwān as a governor over Medina (Yathrib) several times. When Mu‘āwiya died and Yazid held the reins of authority, Marwān was among those who were the first to support his government. It was he who advised al-Walid, the governor of Medina, to arrest Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, but he refused to respond him. When Yazid perished, and Mu‘āwiya (the Second) abdicated the Caliphate, Marwān decided to pledge allegiance to ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr. However, ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr prevented him from this idea. He did not dream of the Caliphate nor was he worthy of it, for he had no good past nor did he render any service to the Muslims.
Any how, al-Husayn (bin Numayr) nominated Marwān for the
Caliphate. He said: “In my sleep I saw a lamp hanging in the heaven. He who
undertook the Caliphate could reach it. None could reach it except Marwān.”
Then he told the Syrians about his dream, and they responded to him.
Accordingly, Rouh b. Zunbā‘ addressed the Syrians saying: “O Syrians, this is
Marwān b. al-Hakam, who is the Shaykh of Quraysh, demanded the blood of
‘Uthmān, fought against ‘Ali b. Abi Tālib at the Battle of the Camel and
Battle of Siffin. So pledge allegiance to the great one!”
Hence the opportunists and mobbish
competed with each other for pledging allegiance to Marwān, who was the first to assume the Marwāni State, which subjected the Muslims to tyranny, poverty, and deprivation.
During the days of Marwān, the Shi‘ites disappeared, for they feared for their souls and properties. Al-Mas‘ūdi said: “The believers disappeared. The Shi‘ites were sought in the cities of the land. Their blood was shed in vain, and their properties were (confiscated). They (the Marwānis) cursed (Imām ‘Ali), the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, on their pulpits.”
Marwān was fond of cursing Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him. He cursed him on the pulpits every Friday when he was the governor of Medina (Yathrib). He expressed the reason for cursing Imām ‘Ali when he met Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, and said to him: “None of the people defended our companion (i.e. ‘Uthmān) more than your Companion (i.e. Imām ‘Ali) did.” Hence Zayn al-‘Ābidin asked him: “So why do curse him on the pulpits?”
“The authority does not go well with us except through this,” replied Marwān.
Disparaging Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and distorting his brilliant reality was part of the Umayyad policy based on lying, deception, and misguidance.
Arab history and Islamic Sunna are full of fabricated narrations whose fabricators intended to deny the truth, that they might preserve their narrow interests. Some of these fabricated narrations show that Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, had strong relationships with Marwān b. al-Hakam. They are as follows:
1. Al-Dhahabi and b. Hajar mentioned that Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, reported Prophetic traditions on the authority of Marwān b. al-Hakam. We cannot believe this narration because Marwān did not take care of the Prophetic traditions and the Islamic norms of sunna, for he devoted himself to the political affairs, strengthening the government of the Umayyads, and increasing his wealth through the money he took from the Muslims’ Public Treasury.
2. Ibn Sa‘d reported that Marwān sent a messenger to Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, and he said to him: “Your father al-Husayn asked Marwān to loan him four thousand dinārs. At that time Marwān had not such a sum of money. Now, he has this sum of money. If you want it, he will send it for you.” The Imām asked it, and it remained with him. None of the Marwānis asked him for it. When Hishām b. ‘Abd al-Malik became a ruler, he asked the Imām to return the money. The Imām returned it, but Hishām gave it to the Imām as a gift.
This narration is clear in fornication. This is because
Imām al-Husayn refused abasement. He disdained Marwān, who was fond of cursing
Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and asked the
governor of Medina to kill him (al-Husayn) if he refused to pledge allegiance
to Yazid. There was an enmity standing between Imām al-Husayn and Marwān.
Therefore, how did Imām al-Husayn yield to Marwān and ask him for a loan? How
did Imām Zayn
al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, ask him for this a loan, while the Umayyads murdered his father?
3. Some narrators reported that Marwān b. al-Hakam asked Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, to marry some women, that Allah might provide him with some children to replace al-Husayn’s children, whom the Umayyads killed with their own swords. The Imām said to him: “I have no money to get married!” Hence Marwān lent him a hundred thousands (dinārs). The Imām took it and got married. When Marwān was about to die, he asked his children not to take the money from ‘Ali b. al-Husayn (Zayn al-‘Ābidin). Al-Dhahabi commented on this narration saying: “Marwān did not die a natural death. Rather his wife Umm Khālid strangled him. So how did he have his own consciousness and order this money to be given to ‘Ali b. al-Husayn?”
The Caliphate of Marwān did not lengthen, for Marwān stayed on the throne of government for some months. Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, foretold the period of his Caliphate, and described it as short as the dog licked its nose. When Marwān died, one of the pages of treason, sins, and falsehood was turned over!
The Islamic Caliphate, which was the Shade of Allah on
the earth, reached to one of the Umayyad stubborn tyrants. He was ‘Abd
al-Malik b. Marwān. He was appointed as caliph during the lifetime of his
father. When his father perished, the pledge of allegiance to him was renewed
in Damascus and Egypt.
The narrators said: “Before
‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwān became a caliph, he had displayed asceticism and worship, that he might deceive the populace and pave the way to government. When he was given good news of the kingdom, he closed the copy of the Qur’ān, which was in his hand, and said: ‘This is the end of the covenant with you.’ Or he said: ‘This is a separation between me and you.’” He was truthful to his words, for he separated himself from Allah’s Book from the first moment when he held the reins of government, ruled the Muslims with a black policy, and empowered over them men like wolves, and they spread tyranny, injustice, and terrorism.
‘Abd al-Malik was an arrogant tyrant. He paid no attention to what he did, as al-Mansūr al-Dawāniqi said. It was he who said: “After this station of mine, if someone orders me to fear Allah, I will cut off his neck!” He also said: “I will cure this community with nothing except with the sword until your affairs go well with me!” Have you seen how did he treat his subjects rudely? He did not treat them with mercy and kindness. Rather he treat them with violence, tyranny, and injustice. These qualities were some of his psychological pleasure. Rather they were some of his personal elements. He went too far in shedding blood without any right, hence he spread bereavement, sadness, and lamentation among the houses of the Muslims. Umm al-Dardā’ said to him: “I have heard that you drank wine after asceticism and worship!” “Yes, by Allah! I have also drunk blood!” he replied. He shed the blood of the Muslims and drank it until he became full.
In addition to his tyranny, violence, and wrongdoing, he
was a miser. Hence he was called Rashah al-Hijāra (the Oozing of the
Stone). During the days of his government, the community suffered hunger, poverty, and deprivation. We will briefly mention some of his unjust works and his attitudes toward Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him.
‘Abd al-Malik poured upon the Muslims a shower of painful torture, and turned their life into an unbearable inferno. This was when he appointed as governor al-Hajjāj b. Yousif al-Thaqafi, who was the worst terrorist whom mankind has ever known throughout history. He gave him wide-range authority. He made him move about in the affairs of the state according to his desires and inclinations, which did not yield, in any case, to the logic of law; rather they yielded to the logic of violence and dictatorship. Hence, al-Hajjāj ordered some people to be executed; some to be imprisoned; some to be arrested. He did this to meet his desires, not to preserve the regime. Accordingly, he created an atmosphere of political crises which were unique in cruelty and bitterness. We will briefly speak about some of the aspects of his wrongdoing:
This arrogant tyrant shed the blood of the Muslims
without any right. AL-Damyari said: “Al-Hajjāj could not withhold himself from
shedding blood. He committed what none did.”
Those whom he killed without any right, except those whom he killed during his
battles, were counted, and they were one hundred and twenty thousand people.
It was said that they were one hundred and thirty thousand people.
He officially confessed shedding blood when he
said: “By Allah, I think that there is none on the earth bolder than me in shedding blood.” He killed with his own sword the reciters of the Qur’ān, the worshippers, and the scholars when they supported the revolt of Ibn al-Ash‘ath. Among those whom he killed without any right was Sa‘id b. Jubayr, who was a great religious scholar and among the eminent figures of the Shi‘ites. Al-Hasan al-Basri praised Sa‘id saying: “By Allah, Sa‘id b. Jubayr died, while all the people on the earth were in need of his knowledge.”
Al-Hajjāj showed mortal enmity toward the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and harbored malice against him. Before the people, he addressed Allah, the Exalted, saying: “Which is better-Your Messenger (Mohammed) or Your caliph (‘Abd al-Malik)?” He punished and laughed at those who visited the grave of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, saying: “Woe unto them! They circle walls and decayed bones! Why do they not go round the palace of ‘Abd al-Malik, the Commander of the faithful? Do they not know that the Caliph is better than the Messenger?” This rude person (al-Hajjāj) preferred ‘Abd al-Malik to the greatest Messenger, whom Allah sent as mercy for mankind. He not only made little of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, but also his survival Companions. The historians said: “Al-Hajjāj spared no effort to abase the Prophet’s companions to the extent that he stamped their necks and their hands.”
 Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqāt, vol. 6, p. 66.
This evil criminal (al-Hajjāj) went too far in displaying enmity toward the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), from whom Allah took away uncleanliness, and whom He purified completely. Hence he wrote to ‘Abd al-Malik saying: “If you want your kingdom to be firm, then kill ‘Ali b. al-Husayn.” However, ‘Abd al-Malik did not respond to him and wrote to him: “Keep me away from the blood of the Hāshimites, and spare their blood. This is because Allah removed the kingdom of the family of Abi Sufyān when they went to extremes in shedding their blood.”
When Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, heard of this, he thanked ‘Abd al-Malik and lauded him. The historians said that the best means to seek nearness to al-Hajjāj was disparaging Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him. A man came and said to Him: “O Emir, my family has wronged me when it named me ‘Ali! I am poor and miserable! I am in need of the Emir’s gifts!”
Al-Hajjāj was pleased with the man, hence he said to him: “It is gentle of you, hence I have appointed over so-and-so.” Hishām al-Kalbi narrated: “The children of Awad taught their children how to curse ‘Ali b. Abi Tālib. A man belonging to the tribe of ‘Abd Allah b. Idris b. Hāni’. The man came to al-Hajjāj b. Yousif and said some words to him. Al-Hajjāj answered the man crudely, hence the man interrupted him saying: ‘Do not say this, O Emir! We have the excellencies of which Quraysh and Thaqif boast !’”
Al-Hajjāj admired the man and asked him: “What are your excellencies?”
“We never disparage ‘Uthmān in our assembly, nor do we mention him with evil,” replied the man.
“This is an excellence,” explained al-Hajjāj.
“We have no rebel,” said the man.
“This is an excellence,” said al-Hajjāj.
Then the man went on mentioning the excellencies of his people saying: “None of us attended an assembly of Abi Turāb (Imām ‘Ali) except one man, and this has made him fallen and unknown in our eyes. He has neither importance nor value with us.” Al-Hajjāj was pleased with this, hence he said: “This is an excellence.”
The man said: “If one of us wants to marry a woman, he asks her whether she loves Abū Turāb (Imām ‘Ali) or not. If she loves him, he turns aside from her and does not marry her.”
Al-Hajjāj said: “This is an excellence.”
The man said: “We have never named our sons ‘Ali, Hasan, and Husayn, nor have we named our daughters Fātima.”
Al-Hajjāj said: “This is an excellence.”
The man said: “When al-Husayn came to Iraq, one of our womenfolk vowed that if Allah had killed him, she would have ordered ten camels to be slaughtered. When he was killed, she performed her vow.”
Al-Hajjāj became happy with this excellence and said: “This is an excellence.”
The man said: “One of our men was summoned to renounce and curse ‘Ali, and he said: ‘I renounce and curse not only him, but also al-Hasan and al-Husayn!’”
Al-Hajjāj hastened to say: “By Allah, this is an excellence!”
The man said: “‘Abd al-Malik, the Commander of the faithful, said to us: ‘You are the underwear (shi‘ār) which is under the outer garments (dithār) (i.e., the nearest to me), and you are the supporters (ansār) after the Supporters.’”
Al-Hajjāj said: “This is an excellence!”
 Al-Majjlisi, Bihār al-Anwār, vol. 46, pp. 119-120.
This is sufficient proof for the exalted position of Imām ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, for none detested him except those who had neither honor nor excellence, such as al-Hajjāj b. Yousif and his corrupt followers.
An example of the crimes and offenses of this tyrant (al-Hajjāj) was his aggression against the Holy House, which Allah has appointed as security for men. He besieged it for six months and seventeen nights when Ibn al-Zubayr sought sanctuary in it. He placed his fighters on the Mountain of Abi Qays and commanded them to throw fire and stones at the Kaaba with their catapults. His fighters carried out his commands and said:
We are throwing (fire and stones) at the walls of that Masjid with catapults like a foaming bull!
This tyrant did not respect the Sacred House of Allah; he violated its sacredness. Yazid b. Mu‘āwiya had violated its sacredness before him.
After al-Hajjāj had demolished the Holy Kaaba, the religious scholars and judges wanted to rebuild it. When they wanted to place the Black Stone in its place, it did not become stable. Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin came, and the people magnified him. Then he took the Black Stone and returned it to its place, and it became stable. Hence the people loudly exclaimed: “Allah is Great!”
This professional terrorist (al-Hajjāj) used the prisons
which did not protect (the prisoners) from heat and coldness. He severely
tortured the prisoners. He drew them on broken Persian canes until they bled. The historians said: “Fifty thousand men and thirty thousand women died in his prisons. He imprisoned both men and women in one place.” “ There were thirty-three innocent prisoners in his prisons.” He passed by the prisoners and said to them: ‘Go away into it and speak not to Me!’” He likened the prisoners to the inhabitants of the Fire, and likened himself to the Great Creator.
Allah punished this wicked criminal (al-Hajjāj), who
drowned the country in afflictions and misfortunes. He made Canker attack his
stomach, and cold attack his body. The braziers full of fire were placed
around him. They were brought nearer to him to the extent that they burnt his
body, but he did not feel them. Pain attacked him severely, hence he
complained of this to al-Hasan al-Basri, and he said to him: “I had prohibited
you from mistreating the righteous, but you insisted on this.” Then al-Hajjāj
said to al-Hasan: “O Hasan, I do not ask you to ask Allah to relieve me.
However, I ask you to ask Him to seize my soul quickly, and not to lengthen
This evil criminal suffered the agony of death until he perished. Hence his
wicked soul went to the Fire. When he died, the door of tyranny was broken,
and the spirit of injustice decreased. When al-Hasan al-Basri heard of his
death, he said: “O Allah, you have made him die, then deaden the norms of his
sunna. He (al-Hajjāj) came to us weak-sighted and short-fingered! He never
struggled in the way of Allah. An example of his unbelief is that he said:
‘Pledge allegiance to me; otherwise I will cut off your necks!’”
‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz said: “If all communities brought their wicked persons
and we brought al-
 Hayāt al-Hayawān, vol. 1, p. 170.
Hajjāj, we would overcome them.” Al-Sha‘bi said: “If all communities brought their evil and sinful persons and we brought al-Hajjāj, we would surpass them.” The Muslims were very glad to hear the news of the death of this wicked criminal. They cursed him until Allah would inherit the earth and what was on it.
‘Abd al-Malik appointed the most wicked of Allah’s creatures over the Islamic world, and they spread tyranny and oppression. He appointed Hishām b. Isma‘il al-Makhzūmi as governor over Medina (Yathrib), and he behaved badly, governed the people with injustice, and wronged the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Moreover he mistreated Sa‘id b. al-Musayyab, a jurist, and ordered him to be whipped sixty times. The subjects complained to ‘Abd al-Malik, but he did not respond to them; rather he scolded them. Al-Nimri also complained to him of wrongdoing, persecution, and plundering properties. Addressing him in a poem, he said:
the norishments of the poor and deprived them of their properties. They took all things from them even the hair of the camels. They also transgressed against the rich and stopped the development of their properties. The poet asked sympathy from ‘Abd al-Malik to refresh his people and to raise wrongdoing from them. He thought that if he had not helped them they would have perished.
As for the affairs of Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, with ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwān, they are as follows:
‘Abd al-Malik circled the Kaaba, so did the Imām. The pilgrims surrounded the Imām and magnified him. Hence ‘Abd al-Malik asked the people about him, and they said to him: “This is ‘Ali b. al-Husayn.” He summoned him and said to him: “O ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, I am not the murderer of your father! What has prevented you from coming to me?”
The Imām did not take care of him and answered him: “The murderer of my father has spoiled his life in this world through his deed, and my father has spoiled the life of his murderer in the next world. If you want to be such a person, then be so.”
The vainglory of ‘Abd al-Malik became lower, and he said: No, but come to us, that you may attain something of our world.”
The Imām, peace be on him, refused to respond to him.
‘Abd al-Malik heard that the sword of Allah’s Messenger,
may Allah bless him and his family, was with Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be
on him. Hence he sent for him and asked him to give to him (the sword) as gift
or need. However, the Imām refused to respond to
 Ithbāt al-Hudāt, vol. 5, p. 229.
him. As a result ‘Abd al-Malik wrote to him and threatened him with cutting off his livelihood from the Public Treasury, so the Imām, peace be on him, answered him:
“Now then, Allah has guaranteed the relief of the Allah-fearing from where they are forced, and provision from where they deem not. He, Great be His Name, said: ‘Surely Allah loves not anyone who is unfaithful, ungrateful.’ Then think: who is worthier of this verse-I or you? Greetings .”
‘Abd al-Malik appointed a spy in Medina to inform him of all things therein. The Imām, peace be on him, had released a slave girl and married her. ‘Abd al-Malik made use of this event, criticized the Imām for it, and wrote to him:
“Now then, I have been informed of your marrying a slave girl. I know that there are qualified Qurashi (women) who will bear you noble children. You have not thought of yourself nor have you thought of your children. Greetings.”
This message contains the essence and customs of the
pre-Islamic people, who refrained from marrying non-Arab women. Hence the Imām
replied to him with the following letter which has included Islamic logic:
“Now then, I have received your letter in which you have scolded me for
marrying my slave girl, claimed that there are Qurayshi women through whom I
can be glorious, and have noble children, that there is no glory and
generosity higher than Allah’s Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family.
(As for the slave girl), she had been the possession of my right hand. I have
released her according to the command of Allah, the Great and Almighty. I have
besought His reward through her. Then I have returned her
 'Ayān al-Shi'a, 4/Q2/980.
religion does not oppose any of Allah’s commands. Through Islam Allah has abolished mean things, completed shortcomings, and taken away ignobility. Therefore, the Muslim blames not; rather those who (follow) the pre-Islamic thoughts blame!”
Islam has adopted abolishing all kinds of racism and all the barriers which divide the members of Islamic society, create selfishness and hatred among them. The organization of the Muslim family has been based on equity, not on lineage. However, ‘Abd al-Malik did not understand this brilliant reality, hence he criticizing the Imām, peace be on him, for marring a miserable slave girl after he had released her. There is no blame or injury against the Imām; rather blame and injury are against the corrupt customs of those who lived before Islam. The historians said: “When ‘Abd al-Malik read the message of the Imām, peace be on him, he admired it and said: ‘‘ ‘Ali b. al-Husayn increases in honor, while the people abase themselves.”
Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, sent a letter to ‘Abd al-Malik and summoned him therein to fear Allah and obey Him. The letter is as follows:
“Now then, nothing exalts you except Allah, and you are in need of Him. If you are exalted through him, then pardon (men) for Him, for you are powerful through Him, and to Him you will return. Greetings.”
This, though brief, is one the Arab most eloquent messages, and contains affairs of great importance. They are as follows:
 Ibid., 4/Q2/479. There is a letter similar to this in al-'Aqdd al-Farid, vol. 7, p. 121.
1. Reverential fear of Allah is the reason for exaltation and glory; kingdom and authority are not two reasons for them.
2. Though ‘Abd al-Malik had a great kingdom, he was in need of Allah, who was capable of depriving of his kingdom.
3. The Imām summoned ‘Abd al-Malik to pardon those evildoers, that he might seek nearness to Allah, to Whom he would return.
The Imām’s knowledge, asceticism, piety, and reverential
fear spread all over the Islamic world. In their assemblies, the people spoke
about his excellencies and laudable deeds. ‘Abd al-Malik was informed of this,
and he became very angry. Hence he ordered his men to arrest the Imām and send
him to Damascus. While the Imām was being preparing for going there, a miracle
occurred. Al-Zuhri narrated the miracle saying: “I witnessed ‘Ali b. al-Husayn
on the day when ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwān ordered him to be sent from Medina to
Syria. He made him heavy in iron, and entrusted him to many guards. I asked
permission from them to greet and see him off. They permitted me, and I went
to him. He was in a dome. His hands and legs were shackled. Hence I wept and
said to him: ‘I wish I were in your place, and you were safe!’ He said: ‘O
Zuhri, do you think that the shackles around my hands, legs, and neck grieve
me? If I willed, they would not be!’ Then he brought his hands and legs out of
the shackles. Then he said: ‘I will not pass by two way stations of Medina
with them!’” Al-Zuhri added: “We passed four nights, and the guards came and
looked for ‘Ali b. al-Husayn in Medina, but they did not find him. I asked the
guards about him, and one of them answered me: ‘We saw none following him, nor
did we see him dismounting. We were around him. We did not sleep, for we were
observing him. When we entered upon morning, we found nothing in his place
except the shackles.’
and he asked me about ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, and I told him. Then he said to me: ‘‘Ali b. al-Husayn came to me on the day when the helpers lost him, and asked me: ‘What am I? What you are?’ Then I said to him: Stay with me. He said: ‘No, I dislike this.’ Then he went out. By Allah, my garment was full of fear of him.’” Al-Zuhri said: [So I said:] “O Commander of the faithful, ‘Ali b. al-Husayn is not as you imagine. He is busy with himself. ‘Abd al-Malik said: ‘ How an excellent work!’”
Allah, the Exalted, make miracles and excellencies run through the hands of His friends, that He may exalt them, magnify their importance, and strengthen their spiritual forces.
With this we will end our speech about the events which occurred between the Imām, peace be on him, and ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwān.
‘Abd al-Malik became ill. His doctors treated him, but all their efforts were in vain. Hence death approached him quickly. Then he died. The historians said: “‘Abd al-Malik was anxious and disturbed. His evil works attacked him, hence he hit himself on the head, and said: ‘I wish I earned my livelihood day by day, busied myself with worshipping and obeying my Lord, the Great and Almighty.’”
‘Abd al-Malik appointed his son al-Walid as successor
after him. He ordered him to take care of al-Hajjāj, a terrorist criminal,
saying: “Consider al-Hajjāj and honor him. It is he who has paved the way to
the pulpits, and he is your sword, Walid, and your hand against your enemy.
Listen not to anyone’s words against him. You need him
 Kifāyat al-Tālib, pp. 448-449. Jāmi' Karāmāt al-Awliyā', vol. 2, p. 156.
Sharh Shāfiyat Abi Firās, vol. 2, p. 104. Tārikh Dimashq, vol. 36, p. 148.
Matālib al-Sa'ūl fi Manāqib Āl al-Rasūl, vol. 2, pp. 43-44. Bahr al-Ansāb,
p. 42. Al-Majjlisi, Bihār al-Anwār, vol. 46, p. 123. A'yān al-Shi'a Q/4/235.
Hulyat al-Awliyā', and others.
more than he needs you. When I die, summon the people to pledge allegiance to you. Employ your sword against those who refuse it.”
These commandments represent ‘Abd al-Malik’s inclinations toward evil even in the last hours of his lifetime. He advised his son to take care of al-Hajjāj, the sinful shedder of blood, who drowned the Islamic countries in afflictions and misfortunes, spread bereavement, sorrow, and mourning among the Muslims. He also ordered him to kill those who were dissatisfied with the Umayyad government. Nothing remained after these commandments except moments, and then he died. His death was on Wednesday, the first half of Shawwāl, in the year 86 A. H. Al-Hasan al-Basri was asked about ‘Abd al-Malik, and he said: “What will I say concerning a man one of whose evil acts was al-Hajjāj? ”
Al-Walid held the reins of government on the day when his
father ‘Abd al-Malik died. Al-Mas‘ūdi described him saying: “Al-Walid was a
stubborn, unjust, and malicious tyrant.”
He made grammatical mistakes. He delivered a sermon in the Mosque of the
Prophet saying: “Yā ahlu al-Medina (O People of Medina).” Ahl is a noun in the
vocative. The grammatical rule says that such a noun must be in the
accusative. However, he used damma in stead of fattha. One day he delivered a
speech saying: Yā laytuhā kānt al-qādiya [O would that it had made an end (of
me)]. He used damma in stead of fattha on the letter (ت)
. Hence ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz said: “May it be against you and relieve us
from you!” His father blamed him for his making grammatical mistakes saying:
“None can be a ruler over the Arabs
except him who speaks their language well.” Then he gathered the grammarians to teach him. Hence al-Walid entered a house and did not go out of it for six months. Then he went out of it while he was more ignorant of grammar than he was before. ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz criticized al-Walid’s government saying: “Al-Walid was one of those who filled the earth with tyranny!”
In the time of this arrogant tyrant (al-Walid), Sa‘id b. Jubayr, a great scholar, was murdered by al-Hajjāj b. Yousif. His murder was among the critical events which terrified the Muslims.
This tyrant (al-Walid) appointed Sālih b. ‘Abd Allah al-Murri governor over Medina (Yathrib). He wrote to him to bring al-Hasan b. al-Hasan, an ‘Alid person, out of prison and whip him five hundred times. Hence Sālih took al-Hasan to the Mosque in order to whip him before the people. When Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him, heard of this, he hastened to al-Hasan, approached him, and said to him: “O cousin, supplicate (Allah) with the supplication for grief, and He will relieve you.”
“What is it?” al-Hasan asked.
Say: “There is no god but Allah, the Clement, the Generous! There is no god but Allah, the All-high, the All-mighty! Glory belongs to Allah, Lord of the seven heavens, Lord of the Great Throne! Praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds!”
Al-Hasan repeated this supplication, and supplicated Allah sincerely. Hence Allah turned the affliction away from him. The Governor did not carry out what he was commanded to do. Then he wrote to al-Walid about al-Hasan’s affair, and he ordered him to release him.
The historians said: “Al-Walid was the most malicious
toward Imām Zayn al-‘Ābidin, peace be on him. He thought that the kingdom
and authority would not go well with him as long as the Imām, peace be on him, was (alive). Hence he gave him poison to drink.” I (the author) will mention this at the end.
Any how, al-Walid was the last Umayyad king with whom the Imām was coeval.
As for the Imām’s attitude toward the kings of his time, it was distinguished by hatred and detest toward them, for their works were corrupt, their policy was evil, and they deviated from the Straight Path. In the meantime, he expected that Islam would be exalted, and its troops would be victorious over the troops of those who deviated from it, that the Banner of Allah might wave high over the earth.
This is one of the great supplications, which display the highest moral traits of the Imām, peace be on him, and his great talents, which did not yield to any desire except the truth. Now, let’s listen to this great supplication with which he would supplicate for the people of the frontiers:
“O Allah, bless Mohammed and his Household, fortify the
 Al-Durr al-Nazim, p. 182.
knowledge of that of which they are ignorant, teach them what they do not know, and show them what they do not see!
“O Allah, bless Mohammed and his Household, make them forget when they meet the enemy to remember this cheating and delusive world of theirs, erase from their hearts the thought of enchanting possessions, place the Garden before their eyes, and display to their sight that part of it which You have prepared for them-the homes of everlastingness and mansions of honor, the beautiful houris, the rivers gushing forth with all sorts of drinks, the trees hanging low with all kinds of fruits-lest any of them think of turning his back or suggest to himself to flee his opponent!”
This part is full of prayers for the Muslim defenders and guards , who were at the frontiers, and stood as strong barriers in order to prevent the enemies from entering the Islamic lands. The Imām supplicated to Allah for them in order to exalt them, to support them, to increase their number, and to make their weapons penetrate the necks of their enemies. He asked Him to unite their throng, to arrange their affair, to send them supplies in a steady string, and to suffice them with provisions, that they might be stable and free from need. He asked Him to support them with victory when they met their enemies, to make them forget the remembrance of the world, the thought of possessions which would prevent them from resisting their enemies, and to place the Garden before their eyes, that they might fight with faithfulness and sincerity. These brilliant paragraphs of the Imām, peace be on him, show that he had a wide experience in war techniques and psychological ways which would give the strugglers a success in fighting against the enemies. Now, let’s listen to other parts of this great supplication:
“O Allah, defeat their enemy through that, trim their
nails from them, separate them from their weapons, pull out the firm ties from
their hearts, keep them far away from their stores, bewilder them in their
roads, turn them astray from their direction, cut off reinforcements from
them, chop them down in numbers, fill their hearts with terror, hold back
their tongues from speaking, scatter by
them the ones behind them, make them a lesson for those beyond them, and through their degradation cut off the hopes of those who come after them.
“O Allah, make the wombs of their women barren, dry up the loins of their men, cut off the breeding of their mounts and their cattle, and permit not their sky to rain or their earth to grow! O Allah, through that strengthen the prowess of the People of Islam, fortify their cities, increase their properties, give them ease from their fighting to worship You and from their warfare to be alone with You, so that none will be worshipped in the regions of the earth but You and no forehead of theirs may be rubbed in dust for less than You!”
These paragraphs are full of supplications against the enemy troops which warred against Islam. The Imām, peace be on him, asked Allah, the Exalted, to defeat their troops, to divide them, to separate them from their weapons, to fill their hearts with fear and terror of the Muslims. He asked Allah, the Exalted, to tie back their tongues from speaking, and to inflict on them a destructive defeat which would make them a lesson for those beyond them. He asked Allah to dry up the loins of their men and to make the wombs of their women barren, for they would give birth to unbelievers. He asked Him to destroy their economic life, that they might not be strong enough to war against the Muslims. Then he asked Him to exalt and strengthen the Muslims, that they might devote themselves to worshipping and obeying Him. Now, let’s listen to another part of this Holy Supplication:
“O Allah, send out the Muslims of every region on raids
against the idolaters who face them! Reinforce them with angels in ranks from
You, till the idolaters are routed by them to the end of the land, slain in
Your earth or taken captive, or till they admit that You are Allah, other than
whom there is no god, You are alone, who has no associate! O Allah, include in
this Your enemies in the regions of the lands, the Indians, the Byzantines,
the Turks, the Khasars, the Abyssinians, the Nubians, the Zanjis, the Slavs,
the Daylamites, and
the rest of the idol-worshipping nations, those whose names and attributes are concealed, but whom You count in Your cognizance and oversee through Your power! O Allah, distract the idolaters from reaching for the borders of the Muslims through the idolaters, bar them from cutting them down through being cut down, and hold them back from massing together against them through dissension! O Allah, empty their hearts of security and their bodies of strength, distract their hearts from thinking of stratagems, make their limbs too feeble for clashing with men, make them too cowardly for contending with champions, send against them a troop of Your angels with some of Your severity as You did on the Day of Badr, so that through it You may cut off their roots, harvest their thorns, and disperse their number!”
This paragraph shows that the Imām took great care of the victory of the Muslims over the idolaters. He asked Allah to reinforce them with angels in ranks from Him, till the idolaters were routed by them to the end of the land, slain in His earth or taken captive, or till they admitted the Unity of Allah, the Creator of the universe and Giver of life.
The Imām, peace be on him, went on supplicating against the unbelieving troops which spread in the regions of the earth. He asked Allah to abase and undermine them, to spread among them enmity and detest, so that they might not unite their throng against the Muslims. He asked Him to empty their hearts of security and their bodies of strength, make their limbs too feeble for clashing with the Muslims, to reinforce the Muslims with angels in ranks, that He might grant them a victory, as He did at the Battle of Badr, so that He might harvest the thorns of the idolaters, disperse their number and throng. Now, let’s listen to another part of this great supplication:
waters with pestilence and their foods with maladies, hurl down their cities,
harass them with peltings, hinder them through drought, place their supplies
in the most ill-omened part of Your earth and the farthest from them, bar them
from its fortresses, and strike them with constant hunger and painful illness!
O Allah, if a worrier
from the people of Your creed wars against them or a struggler from the followers of your prescriptions struggles against them so that Your religion may be the highest, You party the strongest, and Your share the fullest, cast ease to him, arrange his affair, attend to him by granting success, select for him his companions, strengthen his back, lavish upon him livelihood, give him enjoyment of joyous vitality, cool for him the heat of yearning, give him sanctuary from the gloom of loneliness, make him forget the remembrance of wife and child, pass along to him an excellent intention, attend to him with well-being, make safety his companion, release him from cowardice, inspire him with boldness, provide him with strength, support him with help, teach him right conduct and the norms of the Sunna, point him straight in judgment, remove from him hypocrisy, purify him from seeking fame, and make his thinking and remembrance, his departing and his staying, be in You and for You! When he stands in ranks before Your enemy and his enemy, make them few in his eye, diminish their importance in his heart, give him a turn to prevail over them, not them a turn to prevail over him! But if You seal him with felicity and decree for him martyrdom, then let it be after he has exterminated Your enemies by slaying, captivity has afflicted them, the borders of the Muslims are secure, and the enemy has turned his back in flight!”
This part of the supplication of the Imām, peace be on him, contains the following:
Firstly, the Imām supplicated Allah against the idolaters who warred against Islam and showed enmity toward it. He asked Allah to strike them with the pestilence which is nowadays called Cholera, which spreads through water, and it infects those who drink it. In his supplication, the Imām has discovered this scientific reality. He also supplicated Him to mix their foods with maladies, that they might be unable to fight against Islam. Moreover, he asked Him to afflict their cities with eclipse and earthquakes, to strike them with drought and hunger, and to decrease their foods, that their sate might be worse.
Secondly, the Imām, peace be on him, asked Allah, the Exalted, to strengthen those who struggled for His sake, in the way of Islam, and defeating the troops which showed enmity toward it. He asked Him to give them success, strength, activity, well-being, bravery, boldness, and harshness against the enemies. Any how, he asked Him to lavish upon them all good qualities. After this, let’s listen to the last parts of his supplication:
“O Allah, and if a Muslim should take the place of a warrior or a soldier in his home, attend to those left behind in his absence, help him with a portion of his property, assist him with equipment, hone him for the struggle, send along with him a supplication for his purpose, or guard his honor in his absence, reward him with the like of his reward measure for measure, like for like, and recompense him for his act with an immediate compensation through which he will hasten to the profit of what he has sent forth and the joy of what he has given, till the present moment takes him to the bounty You have granted to him and the generosity You have prepared for him!
“O Allah, and if the affair of Islam should worry a Muslim and the alliance of the idolaters’ against Islam should grieve him, so that he has the intention to go to war and is about to enter the struggle, but frailty keeps him seated, neediness keeps him waiting, a mishap delays him, or an obstruction prevents him from his wish, write his name among the worshippers, make incumbent for him the reward of the strugglers, and place him among the ranks of the martyrs and the righteous!
“O Allah, bless Mohammed, Your slave and Your messenger, and the Household of Mohammed, with a blessing high above all other blessings, towering beyond all other blessings, towering beyond all other salutations, a blessing whose end is never reached and whose number is never cut off, like the most perfect of Your blessings that have passed to any one of Your friends! You are All-kind, Praiseworthy, the Originator who takes back again, Accomplisher of what You desire.”
 Al-Sahifa al-Sajjādiya, supplication no. 27.
The Imām, peace be on him, supplicated for him who took the place of a worrier or a soldier, attended to his family in his absence, helped him with a portion of his property, assisted him with equipment, and honed him for the struggle. He asked Allah to reward such a person with the like of the worrier’s reward measure for measure. He also supplicated for the Muslim who took care of the affair of Islam, grieved because the idolaters massed together against Islam, intended to go to war, and was about to enter the struggle, but an obstruction kept him seated. The Imām, peace be on him, asked Allah to make his reward like that of the strugglers, and place him among the martyrs and the righteous.
With this we will end our speech about the kings with whom the Imām, peace be on him, was contemporary.