The Shï~‘ite Political Thoughts
The Shï~'ite Political Thoughts
The Shï~‘a have
adopted political thoughts since the beginning of their history. Among them are
political justice, social justice, human rights, abolishing racial
discrimination, and the like.
political thoughts depend on Islam which came to spread pure justice, to
develop life, to educate man and to prosper his life. Now, we will talk briefly
about some of the Shï~‘ite political thoughts. They are as follows:
believe in the necessity of preparing economic welfare for all people. They
regard poverty as a social disaster. So, they think that poverty should be
removed from the community by all means. Islam urges Moslems to do that. For
this reason, Abu Dharr, the great Moslem leader, revolted against the Umayyad
government that deprived the Moslems of their wealth to spread poverty among
them. In this connection Abu Dharr said his immortal words: “I wonder at the
one who does not find his daily-bread and does not come out drawing his sword.”
government was unable to bear Abu Dharr. For he inflamed the feelings and
sentiments of the people. He provoked the people to revolt against the Umayyad
governments. Hence, the Umayyads banished him to al-Rabadha, a desert in Saudi Arabia (al-Hijaz). There he suffered from
poverty and hunger. However, the gold of the earth was in the hands of the
original objectives of the revolt of Imam Husayn, peace be on him, was that he
wanted to save Islamic economy from the Umayyads. Noteworthy, the Umayyads
played with Islamic wealth. They used it to satisfy their desires and to
support their influence and government. However, Islam orders the rulers to
take care of state properties. It orders them to spend such money on developing
the public life of the individual and society. Moreover, it prevents them from
spending money on the projects that harm the Moslems.
Abolishing Racial Discrimination
abolished racial discrimination since the beginning of its history. It has regarded
it as a social necessity of which life is in need. For racial discrimination
shows that the society is backward. In this connection the great Prophet, may
Allah bless him and his family, said: “An Arab is not preferred to a non-Arab
nor is a white (person) preferred to a black (person). You all belong to Adam,
and Adam belongs to earth.”
political commandments to Malik al-Ashtar, Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the
faithful, peace be on him, said: “People are two kinds. (They are) either your brother
in religion or the like of you in creation.” The Imam, peace be on him,
carried these words of his completely when he became caliph. He divided gifts
equally among the Arabs and the non-Arabs. He did not preferred the Arabs to
the non-Arabs. So, the non Arabs followed him, loved him, and sacrificed their
souls for him.
Islam has taken
care of spreading justice among people. For example, the great Prophet, may
Allah bless him and his family, spread all the concepts of justice among the
people. Imam ‘Ali also did that when he became caliph. He speared no effort to
establish political and social justice. He treated both his relations and
others with justice. During his time, the people confirmed his just practices.
Islamic history is full of his just acts. Hence, political and social awareness
has prospered throughout history.
Revolt against Oppression
against oppression and the oppressive is among the basic principles of the
Shï~‘a. For this reason, the main leaders of this Shï~‘ite sect revolted
against the Umayyad and the Abbasid governments. Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of
the Faithful, peace be on him, was the first to revolt against them. Then his
sincere student, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, the Companion of Allah's Apostle, may
Allah bless him and his family, revolted against them, too.
‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful peace be on him, became caliph, his
government assumed the crucial affairs of the community. It also took care of
justice, fairness, and welfare.
short-term government, the Imam created genuine awareness in the souls of his
followers. Such awareness moved them to revolt against the tyrannical rulers.
So, Hijr b. ‘Adi, the great leader, and his companions revolted against
Mu‘awiya However, the central government in Kufa was unable to bear the
violent attacks of Hijr and his companions. Hence it arrested them, and then it
sent them to Syria. There, at the Marjj of Adhra', they
were executed. They died martyrs for their great Islamic message that came to
spread justice and to establish fairness among the Moslems.
Husayn, peace be on him, the grandson of the great Prophet, may Allah bless him
and his family, raised the flag of the revolt against the tyrannical ruler of
his time, Yazï~d, the grandson of Abu Sufyan, the mortal enemy of Islam.
great Imam (al-Husayn) died martyr for social reform and distributing the
blessings of the earth among the poor.
immortality, the father of the free (Imam Husayn) has changed the face of
Arabic and Islamic history. He has made the Moslems refuse the life of
abasement and lead the life of glory and honor. For them, he has opened doors
to glory and struggle. Hence, his grandsons and the grandsons of his brothers
have led many revolts against oppression throughout Islamic history. They have
raised the mottoes of justice and fairness among Moslems.
“The Shï~‘a were the first to hold the revolutionary Islamic views against
oppression. The essence of revolt lies in their theories. The Shï~‘a believe in
the Imamate. This belief move them to criticize and oppose the ruling class
throughout history. It also make them think that every government is usurping
and oppressive except when an infallible Imam assume it. Hence, the Shï~‘a
always revolt (against governments).”
The Shï~‘a led
many revolts during the Umayyad and Abbasid regimes. For they wanted to
destroy all kinds of oppression and corruption through achieving social justice
in the earth. So, the Shï~‘a is the best of all Islamic sects and doctrines in
striving for the word of truth and justice in the earth.
Boldness and Intrepidity
The leaders of
the Shï~‘a were full of boldness and intrepidity. So, they were not afraid of
any government. They did not submit to any tyrannical ruler. Rather, they
resisted bravely all the oppressive rulers throughout Islamic history. For
example, b. Marjana (‘Ubayd Allah b. Zyyad) killed the Lord of the youth of
Heaven (Imam Husayn), peace be on him. He rejoiced at murdering him. Then he
cursed him and his father (Imam ‘Ali) before the people. Among the people was
‘Abd Allah b. Afï~f al-Azidi, the companion of Imam ‘Ali, peace be on him. He
was blind then. Thus, he stood in front of b. Marjana and shouted: “O enemy of
Allah, you are the liar and your father and the (man) who appointed you and his
father. O Ibn Marjana, you kill the sons of Prophets and take the place of men
of truth on the pulpit.”
of the brave Shï~‘ite leaders was al-Kumayt b. Zayd al-Asadi. He was so great a
poet that he resisted the Umayyads through his poetry. He cursed them openly.
Hence, the Umayyads persecuted him. They imprisoned and tortured him. However,
he went on spreading his beliefs and principles.
Among those who
supported the truth and disdained the Umayyads was al-Farazdaq. That was when
he praised Imam Zayn al-‘Abidïn, peace be on him, and dispraised Hisham b.
‘Abd al-Malik, who ignored the position of the Imam and said that he did not
know him. Al-Farazdaq said to him:
This is he
whose ability the valley of (Mecca) recognizes, and whom the (Sacred)
House recognizes (as do) the sanctuary and the area outside the sanctuary
This is the son
of the best of Allah's servants. This is the pure pious man, the pure eminent
Your words, Who
is that?, do not harm him. The Arabs and the non-Arabs know him whom you deny.
Umayyads imprisoned and tortured him.
Hisham b. ‘Abd
al-Malik disdained the great martyr, Zayd b. ‘Ali, peace be on him. So, the
latter revolted against the former.
Abbasid era, a poet appeared. The poet was one of the brilliant Arab poets. He
was Di‘bil al-Khuza‘i. He sacrificed his life for Allah. He was indignant with
the Abbasid regime, which was as oppressive as the Umayyad. He satirized
al-Rashï~d, al-Amïn, al-Ma'mun, al-Mu‘tasim, and Ibrahï~m b. al-Mahdi. He
said: “I have carried my piece of wood on my shoulder for forty years. I have
found none to hang me on it.”
history of the Shï~‘a is full of heroic attitudes, revolts against oppression,
indigence with tyranny, and struggles for the rights of the persecuted.
The Shï~‘a faced Troubles
times, the Shï~‘a faced many troubles and hardships. For the Umayyads punished
and tortured them severely. They treated them cruelly. They persecuted them
officially during the Umayyad government. Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace
be on him, reported the troubles and hardships the Shï~‘a faced during the time
of Mu‘awiya. He said: “Our Shï~‘ites were killed in every city. The hands and
the legs were cut off out of accusation. Whoever loved and followed us was
imprisoned or his property was plundered or his house was demolished.”
Shï~‘ites faced much more troubles and hardships than the other Shï~‘ites. The
great poet ‘Abd Allah b. Amir, known as al-Abli, described his troubles and
hardships out of his love for the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be
on him. He said:
They made me
homeless when I praised ‘Ali.
that such praise was a dangerous illness in me.
Ja‘far (al-Baqir) was asked: “What is your situation?”
the people are safe because of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his
family while I am afraid because of him,” Abu Ja‘far, peace be on him, replied.
al-Mughï~ra had died, Mu‘awiya appointed Zyyad b. Abï~h as governor over the
Shï~‘a. Zyyad deviated from his religion. Hence, he was indignant with the
Shï~‘a. Thus, he cut of their hands and their legs and knocked out their eyes.
He pursued them every where and hanged them on the trunks of the date palms. Generally speaking, he committed the following
crimes against the Shï~‘a:
He demolished their houses.
He refused to accept their testimony.
He imprisoned them.
He murdered them.
historians said: “Al-Fadl b. Dukayn became a Shï~‘ite. His son came to him
weeping. Dukayn asked his son: ‘What has made you weep?’ ‘Father,’ the son
replied, ‘the people say that you have become a Shï~‘ite.’”
Umayyads punished severely those who were accused of Shi‘ism. The historians
said: “Ibrahï~m b. Hirthima came to Medina. One of the Alï~ds came and greeted
him. So, Ibrahï~m said to him: ‘Go away from me. If the Umayyads saw you
greeting me, they would kill me.’”
the Umayyads ordered their governors to kill the babies who were named ‘Ali.
When ‘Ali b. Rabah heard of that, he was afraid. So, he said: “May Allah curse
those who called me ‘Ali.” Then, he called himself ‘Ulay.
Umayyad and Abbasid governments went too far in troubling and killing the
Shï~‘ites. Hence, the Imams of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace
be on them, legislated precautionary dissimulation, which means “Concealing the
truth, concealing the belief in it, hiding (beliefs) from the non-Shï~‘a, and
leaving supporting them. For that harms religion and the world.”
Imams legislated precautionary dissimulation to prevent the blood of the
Shï~‘a from being shed. For the Umayyads and the Abbasids regarded shedding
their blood as lawful.
Imams ordered the Shï~‘a to use precautionary dissimulation as a basic rule
for political and social behavior. Had it not been for this rule, the Umayyads
and the Abbasids would have destroyed all the Shï~‘ites.
Imams of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, strongly
ordered their followers (Shï~‘ites) to conceal their beliefs and love for them.
For they feared for their lives. In this connection, Imam Abu Ja‘far
(al-Baqir), peace be on him, said: “Taqiya or precautionary dissimulation is
my religion and the religion of my fathers. He who has no taqiya has no faith.”
wise plan protected the doctrine of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt),
peace be on them. Had it not for it, the Umayyads and the Abbasids would have
removed the traces of their doctrine. In this connection, Shaykh al-Tusi said:
“No sect was troubled as the Shï~‘a. They suffered from fear all the time. So,
they cleaved to precautionary dissimulation (taqiya).”
Shï~‘a were politically aware when they resorted to precautionary
dissimulation. With that they were able to protect their beliefs from their
strong malicious opponents.
The Unity of the Shï~‘a
said that the Shï~‘a were distinguished by a general unity at the time of Imam
Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. There was no ideological differences
among them during the time of the Imam. Rather, these differences took place
after his death. However, the Kaysaniya, who believed in the
Imamate of Mohammed b. al-Hanafiya, appeared during the days of Imam Abu
Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. As for the Zaydï~s, the Isma‘ilï~s, and
the Waqifiya, they appeared after his death.
With this we
will end our talk about the Shï~‘a and all the Islamic sects. As for the talk
about the qualities of the Shï~‘a in detail, we have prepared a certain study a
bout that. May Allah grant us success to publish it as soon as possible, Allah
before Islam belonged to numerous tribes. They moved from one place to another
seeking rain pastures. The majority of them led a poor desert life.
came, their life changed. They left the Bedouin life and followed the civilized
life. Most of their situations then changed, too. Their tribal feelings changed
into Islamic brotherhood, which had no fanaticism nor tribal customs.
Moslems became stable, they began spreading culture and knowledge among the
people. That is because culture and knowledge were necessary for developing the
society. The Umayyads paid no attention to scientific life. However, two
schools were established in Medina (Yathrib), the homeland of culture and
knowledge. They are as follows:
The School of the Next Generation
took care of Islamic sciences. As for its members, they were Sa‘ï~d b.
al-Musayyab, ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr, al-Qasim b. Mohammed b. Abï~ Bakr, Abu Bakr
b. ‘Abd al-Rahman b. al-Harith b. Hisham, Sulayman b. Yasar, ‘Ubayd Allah
b. ‘Uttba b. Mas‘ud, Kharija b. Zayd.
It is necessary
for us to talk briefly about the above-mentioned great figures. They are as
1. Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab
His real name
is Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab b. Hazn al-Qarashi al-Makhzumi. He was born two years
after the caliphate of ‘Umar. We will mention some of his affairs:
His Scientific Position
He was one of
the main scholars of his time. Qattada said: “I have never seen a person more
knowledgeable than Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab in the lawful and the unlawful.” Mohammed b. Sa‘ï~d reported on the authority
of Makhul, who said: “I traveled all over the land seeking knowledge. However,
I have not found a person more knowledgeable than Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab.” Ibn al-Madani said: “I do not think that there
is a person among the next generation more knowledgeable than Sa‘ï~d b.
al-Musayyab.” Al-Layth reported on the authority of Yahya
b. Sa‘ï~d, who said: “Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab was called the Narrator of ‘Umar.
He memorized his (‘Umar's) judgments more than the people did.”
to these have been mentioned. They showed that Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab had a high
scientific position, and that he was one of the excellent scholars of his time.
al-Musayyab reported many traditions on the authority of Imam Zayn
al-‘Abidïn. He learned from him many matters concerning the lawful and the
differed over his (Sa‘ï~d's) reliability. Some of them said that he was
reliable depending on the traditions concerning him. The others slandered him
and said that he was unreliable. Our master, professor al-Khu'i inclined to
stop concerning his affair. For the chain of authorities about praising and
dispraising him is incomplete.
Maymun reported on the authority of his father, who said: “I came to Medina. I
asked about the most knowledgeable of all the people of Medina. Then, I had
been guided to Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab.” This means that the Umayyad government ordered
Maymun to go to Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab, and that it took care of the latter.
said: “At that time, the person came to ask about religious opinions. However,
the people sent him from one assembly to another till he reached the assembly
of Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab. For they hated to give religious opinions.”
al-Musayyab was fond of love poetry. He recited it in the mosque of Allah's
Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.
al-Musayyab died in Medina (Yathrib), in the year 94 A. H. It was said that he
died in the year 93 A. H. That was during the caliphate of al-Walï~d. When he died,
he was 75 years of age.
‘Urwa bin al-Zubayr
His real name
is ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr b. al-Awam al-Madani. He was one of the seven jurists of
Medina. He was the most knowledgeable of all the people in the traditions of
‘A'isha. He understood all of her narrations and traditions. For she was his aunt. He was present with his
father al-Zubayr, who fought against Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful,
peace be on him, (at the Battle of the Camel). ‘Urwa was 13 years old. So, the
Imam regarded him as young.
b. Marwan praised ‘Urwa very much. Concerning him, he said:” Whoever is
pleased to look at a man from the people of the garden, he must look at ‘Urwa
‘Urwa said: “If
you see the person doing a good deed, know that he has other good deeds. When
you see him doing an evil deed, know that he has other evil deeds.”
He died in the
year 91 or 92 A. H.
3. ‘Ubayd Allah bin ‘Abd Allah
His real name
is ‘Ubayd Allah b. ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Uttba b. Mas‘ud al-Hadhli. He was given the
kunya of Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Madani. Al-‘Ajali said: “‘Ubayd Allah b. ‘Abd Allah
was blind. He was one of the jurists of Medina. He belonged to the next
generation. He was reliable, righteous, and knowledgeable. He was the teacher
of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azï~z.” He was fond of love poetry. He died in the year 99 A. H.
4. ‘Abd al-Rahman
He was given
the kunya of Abu al-Harith al-Madani. He reported (traditions) on the
authority of a group of (people). Among them were Zayd b. ‘Ali b. al-Husayn,
al-Hasan al-Basri, Hakï~m b. Hakï~m, and the like. Al-Nisa'i said: “He is not
reliable.” However, b. Sa‘d said: “He is reliable.” Ahmed said: “He is
neglected.” ‘Ali b. al-Madani regarded him as a weak (traditionalist). He died at
the beginning of the caliphate of Abu Ja‘far al-Mansur.
5. Sulayman bin Yasar al-Hilali
He was given
the kunya of Abu Ayyub al-Madani. He reported traditions on the authority of
Umm Salama and‘A'isha. He was one of the scholars of the people after Sa‘ï~d
b. al-Musayyab. He died in the year 107 A. H. When he died, he was 73 years of
6. Kharija bin Zayd b. Thabit
He was given
the kunya of Abu Zayd al-Madani. He reported on the authority of a group (of
people). A group of (people) reported on his authority.
Ibn Sa‘d said:
“Kharija was reliable. He reported many traditions.” Al-Dhahabi did not mention him with the
memorizers of the traditions.
7. Al-Qasim bin Mohammed
bin Abu Bakr
He was given
the kunya of Abu Mohammed. He reported on the authority of his father and his
aunt, ‘A'isha, and the ‘Abadila. A group of people reported on his authority.
said: “His father was killed, so he remained an orphan under the care of
‘A'isha.” He added: “He (al-Qasim) was the best of the people of his time.”
said: “I have never seen (a person) more knowledgeable than him in the Sunna,
nor have I seen (a person) cleverer than him.”
al-Baqir, peace be on him, married his (al-Qasim's) daughter, and she born
him Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Sadiq, peace be on him.
sometimes numbered him as one of the companions of al-Sajjad, and he sometimes
numbered him as one of the companions of al-Baqir, peace be on him.
in the year 102 A.H.
With this we
will end our talk about the seven jurists who formed a school called the School
of the Next Generation.
The School of the Ahl al-Bayt
It was the
first ideological school to be established in Islam. It spared no effort to
develop the life of the Moslems. It was not confined to Islamic legislation.
Rather, it took care of knowledge and sciences such as philosophy, wisdom,
medicine, chemistry, theology, policy, administration, economy, and the like.
played an important role in recording sciences. Noteworthy, the first and the
second Caliph prevented (the Moslems) from recording traditions. For they
claimed that such an act would have an effect on the Book of Allah. However,
this claim is baseless.
al-Sadr said that the Shï~‘a were the first to take care of jurisprudence. He
mentioned some of the Shï~‘ite authors. Among them is ‘Ali b. Abu Rafi'. He
was one of the main Shï~‘ites at the time of Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the
Faithful, peace be on him. He was the secretary of the Imam. He wrote a book
on the techniques of jurisprudence.
authors was Salï~m b. Qays al-Hilali al-Kufi. He was one of the companions of
Imam ‘Ali, peace be on him. His life coincided with the time of al-Hajjaj,
namely during the period of the Umayyad government. Al-Hjjaj, the criminal,
tried to kill him. So, he sought protection with Aban b. ‘Ayyash. When death
came to him, he gave his book to Aban. It was the first Shï~‘ite book to
appear. Aban b. ‘Ayyash reported the book.
school of the ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them, took care of all sciences. It was
not confined to a certain science. Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful,
peace be on him, was the first to establish it. Then, the pure Imams from his
children took care of it. Then, Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, took care of
it. Many scholars came to Imam al-Baqir to study under him. Reliable scholars
reported many sciences on his authority. We will mention that when we talk
about the companions and reporters of Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him.
mentioned this school in detail in our book “The Life of Imam Musa bin
Ja‘far.” It has been also published in “A‘yan al-Shï~‘a” and the “al-Adwa'
Public Cultural Life
As for the public
cultural life at the time of Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, it was very
shallow. There was no measure for the morals and ideals which Islam had
brought. Rather, the people returned to their customs before Islam. They vied
in fathers and lineage with each other. This phenomenon can be easily seen in
the poetry of that time. The poets vied in lineage with each other. So, they
satirized each other. An example of this is al-Farazdaq and Jarï~r. Their
poetry is full of satire.
poet of the ‘Alids, seized this opportunity. He praised laudable deeds of his
people from Madar. He preferred his people to the Qahtaniyyï~n. With that he
could create a discord among the tribes. So, he played an important role in
overthrowing the Umayyad government.
al-Khuza‘i defended the Qahtaniyyï~n. I think that al-Kumayt and Di‘bil
agreed with on another on that to sow the seeds of discord among the tribes to
weaken them. Di‘bil composed a poem of six hundred lines as an answer to
vied in glory with the Yemaniya. Hence, tribalism moved both the people of the
cities and the people of the desert to the extent that the country was full of
general style of the literature of that time was boasting and satire. It
represented neither awareness nor seriousness in the thoughts. It had no
summons to good. Rather, it summoned the people to follow harmful discords.
As for the
political life at that time, it was very disorderly. Discords and troubles
prevailed the people. Fearful events occurred. There was no security. The
hearts of the people were full of terror. The people were restless out of the
bloody revolts. Thousands of people were the victims of those revolts. For the
Umayyads followed an evil policy. They were indifferent to the interests of the
Moslems. Rather, they did their best to achieve their aims and desires. Now, we
will talk about some of the aspects of the political life at that time.
At that time
numerous parties were formed. The parties followed various trends. Violent
struggles took place among them. They used all political ways to hold the reins
of government. Hence, they paid no attention to the interests of the community.
The following is some of these parties.
1. The Umayyad Party
It was the
ruling party at that time. It took the reins of government through various
kinds of deception and misleading tactics. The popular forces killed ‘Uthman.
However, the Umayyads used his blood as a motto to achieve their political
objectives. They provoked all people to avenge the blood of their leader,
‘Uthman. They forgot that they had deserted him. They had not supported him
when the revolutionists besieged his house and asked him to establish social
justice. He was besieged for days. The Umayyads heard of that. However, they
did not defend him. Then, the revolutionists killed ‘Uthman. Afterwards, the
Umayyads summoned the people to avenge his blood. They used his blood as means
to assume the authority and to plunder the wealth of the country. When they
undertook the authority, they adopted all illegal political ways. The following
is some of them:
A. They (the
Umayyads) deceived the Syrians. They told them that they were the nearest
people to Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. So, the Syrians
believed them. However, the Syrians knew the deception of the Umayyads when the
Abbasids took the rein of government. Some poets composed poems concerning
B. The Umayyads
formed committees and ordered them to fabricate traditions and to ascribe them
to the great Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. They ordered the
fabricators to say that the Umayyads were the lords of all the creatures, and
that they were the nearest of all the people to Allah, the Exalted. So, they
spent a lot of money on the fabricators who supported their government.
C. They used
the poets as means to praise and laud them. They gave them many gifts and spent
a lot of money on them. For poetry was strong mass media at that time.
said that Mohammed b. Marwan gave a lot of money to his poet, Abu al-Abbas
the blind. So, the latter did not ask anybody for money after the death of the
A‘sha Rabï~‘a praised and lauded ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan. So, ‘Abd al-Malik
spent a lot of money on him.
The poet ‘Adï~
b. al-Raqqa‘ praised and lauded al-Walï~d b. ‘Abd al-Malik. So, al-Walï~d gave
him many gifts and spent a lot of money on him.
al-Ahwas praised and lauded Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya. Hence, Yazï~d gave him many gifts and spent a
lot of money on him. The poet forgot that Yazï~d drank wine, played with the
monkeys, killed Imam al-Husayn-peace be on him-, and attacked Medina, the city
of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.
Umayyads used the poets to support their policy and to impose their government
on the people.
2. The Zubayri Party
thought that al-Zubayr's family, headed by ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr, was the
most appropriate of all the people for government. For they were the relations
of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Al-Zubayr's mother Safiya
was the aunt of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Besides
al-Zubayr was one of the six candidates of the consultative committee which
‘Umar b. al-Khattab nominated.
propagator and supporter of this party was b. Qays al-Ruqayyat, a great poet.
He praised and lauded Mas‘ab b. al-Zubayr. He summoned the people to revolt against the
combatant poets of this party was al-Nabigha al-Ju‘di. He praised and lauded
‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr. He boasted of his justice. He likened him to Abu Bakr
, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman. So, he thought that ‘Abd Allah was appropriate for the
party did not last for a long time. For al-Hajjaj destroyed it when he killed
‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr.
3. The Kharijites
believed in revolting against all the rulers in the Islamic countries, for the
rulers did not believe in their principles and thoughts. In the previous
chapters, we have mentioned some of their principles. As for their propagators,
they were many. Among them was al-Tirimmah. He praised and lauded them.
They had other
poets. They glorified their principles, and urged their people to revolt
against the governments then.
4. The Shi‘a
The main Moslem
figures joined this party. Among them were Salman al-Farisi, ‘Ammar b.
Yasir, Abu Dharr, and Khuzayma b. Thabit al-Ansari, called the man of two
testimonies because the Prophet made his testimony equal to two men. They
played an important role in spreading and defending Islam. They firmly believed
in the succession of the members of the house (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them,
to authority after the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family.
That is because
the members of the house (ahl al- Bayt), peace be on them, were the family of
the Prophet, life-boats, and safety for the creatures, as the Prophet, may
Allah bless him and his family, said. Besides they had countless talents and
At the time of
Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, al-Kumayt al-Asadi was the spokesman of the
members of the house (ahl al- Bayt), peace be on them. He supported and
defended them. In that he depended on the Holy Koran, saying.
We have found a
verse concerning you in the verses beginning with Ha Mï~m.
The pious and
the non-pious from us have explained it.
In other than
the verses beginning with Ha Mï~m, there are successive verses concerning you.
They are as
signposts (of knowledge) for the possessor of tiring doubt.
referred to the verses that concerned the members of the house (ahl al- Bayt),
peace be on them. However, the people gave them another meaning.
defended the Shï~‘a in his poem called al-Hashimiyat. The Shï~‘a used
al-Kumayt's poems as proofs for their beliefs. Al-Kumayt's poems are among the
most wonderful ideological wealth in Islam. In the Shï~‘ite political poetry,
the poets praised the members of the house (ahl al- Bayt), peace be on them,
not for money. Rather, they praised them to show loyalty to the truth.
With this we
will end our talk about the political parties at the time of Imam Abu Ja‘far
(al-Baqir), peace be on him. There were violent struggles among the parties.
History and literature books have mentioned the struggles.
Discords and Disorders
community suffered from discords and disturbances. Moreover, the bad Umayyad
politicians spread fear and terror all over the Islamic countries.
The famous poet
al-Harith b. ‘Abd Allah described those discords and disorders. Another poet called al-Abbas b. al-Walï~d
described them, too. He said that the discords were like the
mountains. All those discords and disorders resulted from the Umayyad policy
based on tyranny, oppression, and punishing the people severely. So, the people
revolted against government and overthrew it.
Play and Luxury
The Umayyads king
indulged in play and luxury. They were fond of impudence and pleasures. So,
they spent the wealth of the Moslems on their pleasures. In addition to that
the rich participated with the Umayyads in pleasures and impudence. They used
all kinds of luxury. With that they deviated from the life of the Moslems
during the lifetime of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. The
people at that time renounced worldly pleasures. ‘A'isha was asked about her
garment during the days of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and
she answered: “By Allah, it was not silk nor cotton nor flax. Rather, it was
(made of) the hair of camels.”
However, this life
changed completely during the time of the Umayyads. The young men of the Banu
Marwan wore embellished clothing. Marwan b. Aban b. ‘Uthman wore seven
shirts, one was shorter than the other. On them, he wore a one thousand-dirham
Adani cloak. During his rule over Medina, ‘Umar b. ‘Abd
al-‘Azï~z wore a four-hundred dirham garment. However, he said: “How hoarse and
thick (this garment) is!”
Harun b. Salih
reported on the authority of his father, who said: “We gave many dirhams to the
washerman to wash our clothes with suds of the clothes of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd
al-‘Azï~z, for it was full of perfume.”
The clothes of the women
of Medina (Yathrib) changed. They wore silk-clothes, and the like. Men also wore colored clothes.
Among the aspects of the luxury at that
time was excessive dowries. ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abï~ Bakr, the
husband of ‘A'isha, daughter of Talha, died. So, Mas‘ab b. al-Zubayr married
her and gave her one million dirhams as a dowry.
The historians talked about her luxury
saying: “When ‘A'isha went to make the pilgrimage (to Mecca), sixty mules with
howdahs and luggage accompanied her.”
‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr said to her: “O
‘A'isha, O Possessor of sixty mules, such do you make the pilgrimage (to
Mecca) every year?
Excessive dowries were signs of luxury
at that time. However, the Umayyads and the like were known for that.
The ruling group became so rich that its
women were luxurious. The historians reported: “‘Atika, daughter of Yazï~d b.
Mu‘awiya, asked ‘Abd al-Malik to permit her to make the pilgrimage (to Mecca).
He said to her: ‘Increase your needs and seek the help of (your folk women),
for ‘A'isha daughter of Talha will make the pilgrimage (to Mecca).’ She did
that. When she was on the road between Mecca and Medina, a procession came and
separated her group. She said: ‘I think that she is ‘A'isha.’ She asked about
her. They said: ‘That is her treasurer.’ Then a larger procession came and
separated her group. She said: ‘That is ‘A'isha.’ ‘No,’ they replied ‘that is
her maid.’ Then other processions followed. Then a procession of three hundred
camels came. Hawdas and domes were on them. So, ‘Atika said: ‘What with Allah
is better and more lasting.’”
The historians reported other examples
of luxurious women. Among them is that Mas‘ab gave eighty pearls to ‘A'isha as
a gift. When he entered to give them to her, he found her sleeping. He woke
her. When she saw the gift, she paid no attention to it. Then she said: “Sleep
is more lovable with me (than the gift).”
famous during the Umayyad time. Medina (Yathrib) took care of singing. The
Umayyad government intentionally encouraged singing in the city to degrade its
holy position in the souls of the Moslems.
said: “Neither the scholar nor the worshiper of Medina denied singing.”
Malik b. Anas,
the jurist of Medina, had knowledge of singing. Husayn b. Dahman al-Ashqar
reported. He said: “I was in Medina. I was lonely in the street. So, I began singing:
O Rabab, what is wrong with your family? They are frowning. It seems that they
are angry. However, I heard a man saying: ‘O Sinner, you do not sing well. You
have prevented the singerstress. You have announced the atrocity.’ Then he
began singing. So, I asked him: May Allah make you righteous. From where have
you learned this singing? He replied: ‘When I was a boy, I followed the singers
and learned from them. Mother said to me: My little son, if the singer has an
ugly face, no one will listen to his singing. So, leave singing and seek
jurisprudence. For the ugly face is not necessary for jurisprudence. Hence, I
left the singers and followed the jurists. Then I said to him. Repeat
(singing). He said: No, do you want to say that you have learned singing from
Malik b. Anas?’ However, I had not known that the man was Malik b. Anas.”
singer, witnessed before the judge for a man from Medina against an Iraqi. The
judge accepted Dahman's testimony. The Iraqi man said to the judge: “He is
Dahman, the singer.” “I know him,” replied the judge , “If I did not know him,
I would ask (the people) about him.” The Iraqi man continued: “He sings. He
teaches slave girls singing.” “May Allah forgive you and us. We all sing,” said
In this manner
singing spread in Medina, which was the capital of Islam. Without doubt, it was
the Umayyad government that encouraged singing to degrade the holy position of
Medina, which was the capital of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his
The Umayyad government
encouraged singing and spent money on singers. The historians reported. They
said: “Mi‘bid, Malik b. Abu al-Samh, and b. ‘A'isha came to Yazï~d b. ‘Abd
al-Malik. He ordered one thousand dinars to be given to each of them.”
Yazï~d spent generously on the singers. He gave Mi‘bid twelve thousand dinars.
The he summoned all the singers of Saudi Arabia (Hijaz) and gave them many
famous. The Umayyad king approached singers. They spent generously on them. So,
the people practiced singing.
reported: “When al-Walï~d b. Yazï~d became caliph, he sent for ‘Atrad from
Medina. ‘Atrad was handsome. He sang beautifully. So, al-Walï~d tore his
clothes and threw himself into the pond of wine. He was still in it. Then he
was brought out of it. He looked like a dead person. When he recovered, he said
to ‘Atrad: ‘It is as if that I saw you returning to Medina standing before its
assemblies and saying: The Commander of the Faithful summoned me. I entered his
house. He asked me to sing. When I sang, he tore his clothes and threw himself
into the pond of wine. By Allah, if your lips mentioned a thing of what had
happened and I heard of that, I would behead you.’ Then, he gave one thousand
dinars to ‘Atrad, who took it and went away.”
reported many examples of this. These examples show the impudence of the
Umayyads. They show that the Umayyads deviated from Islam, which ordered them
to refrain from the life of play and impudence.
suffered from many hardships and misfortunes. Among them was fabricating
traditions. Some people had no relationship with religion. They fabricated
traditions to distort Islam and to divert the Moslems from the precepts of
their religion and the teachings of their Prophets.
Abu Sufyan was the first to form committees to fabricate traditions and
ascribe them to the great Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. So, the
committees fabricated traditions and proclaimed them among the people. Then the
narrators memorized the fabricated traditions. If they had known that the
traditions were fabricated, they would have abandoned them.
connection, al-Mada'ini said: “Many fabricated traditions appeared. Slanders
spread. The jurists, the judges, and the governors followed that. The hypocrite
readers (of the Koran) and the deprived ones, who showed humility and
asceticism, were the most dangerous of all the people in that. They fabricated
traditions to enjoy the favor of their rulers, to approach their assemblies,
and to get money and country estates and houses. Then those (fabricated)
narrations and traditions reached the religious ones who regarded lying and
slander as unlawful. They accepted the narrations and the traditions and reported
them. They thought that the narrations and the traditions were authentic. If
they had known that the narrations and the traditions were fabricated, the
would not have reported them nor would have they believed in them.”
the Umayyads ordered the narration and the traditions to be fabricated to
degrade the Prophet's pure family whose love Allah made obligatory in the Book.
They entrusted the committees to create narrations and traditions concerning
the Companions (of the Prophet). For they wanted to defame the Hashimites.
traditionalist b. ‘Arafa, known as Naftawayh, said: “(The committees)
fabricated most traditions concerning the Companions (of the Prophet) during
the days of the Umayyads. For they (the committees wanted to enjoy the favor of
the Umayyads. With the traditions they (the Umayyads) thought that they would
degrade the Hashimites.”
entrusted the committees to fabricate traditions to dispraise Imam ‘Ali, peace
be on him, and defame him.
al-Haddï~d said: “Our Shaykh, Abu Ja‘far al-Iskafi mentioned that Mu‘awiya
appointed a group of the Companions (of the Prophet) and a group of the next
generation to fabricate traditions concerning ‘Ali to slander him and to
renounce him. He gave them money for that. So, they fabricated what pleased
him. Among them were Abu Hurayra, ‘Amru b. al-‘As, and al-Mughï~ra b.
Shu‘ba. Among the next generation was ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr.”
fabricated traditions, Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, said:
“They narrated ugly (traditions) concerning ‘Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn,
peace be on him. Allah knew that they reported nothing except lying and
traditions spread widely. The traditionalist ‘Asim b. Nabï~l said: “The righteous
person did not lie in a thing except in traditions.” Waqï~‘ said: “Though
Ziyad b. ‘Abd Allah was honest in the tradition, he was a liar.” Yazï~d b.
Harun said: “The traditionalists of Kufa were liars in traditions. The
Sufyaniyyin were also liars.” Moslem reported that the Prophet, may Allah
bless him and his family, ordered dogs to be killed except hunting and cattle
exploited the traditionalist al-Zahri. So, he fabricated traditions to defend
and support the Umayyad government. Among his fabricated traditions is that he
reported on the authority of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family,
that he said: “Luggage is not tied but to three (mosques): this mosque of mine,
the Kaba, and Jerusalem.”
regarded Jerusalem as the Kaba. He fabricated this tradition when the Umayyads
prevented the Syrians making the pilgrimage (to Mecca). For the Umayyads wanted
to prevent the Syrians from meeting the Saudis whom b. al-Zubayr ruled. Hence,
the Syrians made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem instead of Mecca.
Fabricated Narration against Imam Abu Ja‘far
fabricated narrations against Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him,
is what Abu al-Bakhtari reported. He said: “Abu Hanï~fa came to Imam Abu
Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. The Imam said to him: 'The sunna
(practices) of my grandfather has become obliterated. You have enlivened it.
You are the helper of every grieved person. The perplexed ones follow you. You
guide them to the plain path. So, may Allah help you and grant you success to
participate the righteous in the way.”
This is one of
the fabricated narrations of Abu al-Bakhtari. In his biography, it was
mentioned that he was the most dangerous of all the creatures in telling lies.
Fabricators against Abu Ja‘far
Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, was troubled by a group of fabricators.
For they fabricated traditions and narrations ascribed them to him. The
following is some of them:
1. Bayan bin Sam‘an al-Hindi
to the Banu Tamï~m. He fabricated traditions and attributed them
to the Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.
Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir) and his son Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on them, asked
their followers to renounce Bayan, for he fabricated traditions and ascribed
them to the Imams, peace be on them.
reported on the authority of Imam Abu Ja‘far, peace be on him, who said: “May
Allah curse Bayan, for he fabricated (traditions) and attributed them to my
father. I bear witness that my father ‘Ali b. al-Husayn was a righteous
the death of Abu Hashim, Bayan claimed prophecy. Then he wrote to Abu
Ja‘far to follow him and recognize his prophecy.
was attributed to him that he believed in the divinity of ‘Ali, al-Hasan,
al-Husayn, Mohammed b. al-Hanafiya, and Abu Hashim. Among his fabrication is
that he said: “Allah, the Exalted, will perish except his face.” Then he was killed because of his
2. Hamza al-Barbari
b. ‘Ammara al-Barbari fabricated traditions and ascribed them to Imam Abu
Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. So, the Imam, peace be on him, renounced
was an unbeliever. He said: “Whoever knows the Imam, let him do whatever he
wants. For he does not commit a sin.” He said that Mohammed b. al-Hanafiya was
Allah, the Great and Almighty. So, Khalid b. ‘Abd Allah al-Qasri killed him.
3. Al-Mughï~ra bin Sa‘ï~d
Sa‘ï~d al-Bajali al-Kufi created heresies and events in Islam. We will mention
some of his affairs:
created heresies and abominable deeds. The following is some of them:
A. He believed
in incarnation. He said: “Allah is in the shape of a man. There is a crown on
His head. His parts are as equal as the alphabet. He has an abdomen. He has a
heart full of wisdom.” Then he classified the parts of Allah
according to the alphabet. Then he said: “When Allah wanted to create
(the creatures), He talked with his name. So, He flew and fell on His crown. Then
he wrote the deeds of the creatures with His own fingers. When He saw the sins,
He oozed sweat. Two sees formed from His sweat. One was fresh the other was
salty. He created the unbelievers from the salty sea and the believers from the
B. He was a
juggler. Among his jugglery is that he went to the cemetery. He spoke and saw
things like locusts on the graves.
C. He was
skillful in creating and inserting traditions in the books of the members of
the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. He inserted excessiveness in the
books of Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him.
Imam Abu ‘Abd
Allah al-Sadiq said to his companions: “Do not accept the traditions reported
on our authority except the traditions that agrees with the Koran and the
Sunna. You must compare them with our previous traditions, for al-Mughï~ra b.
Sa‘ï~d has inserted fabricated traditions in the books of the companions of my
father. Fear Allah. Do not accept the traditions that disagree with the words
of our Lord and the Sunna of our Prophet.”
al-Hakam reported on the authority of Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, who
said: “Al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d intentionally fabricated lies against my father.
He took the books of the companions of my father. The companions of al-Mughï~ra
concealed themselves among the companions of my father. They took the books and
gave them to al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d. He inserted unbelief in them. Then he
attributed them to my father. Then he gave them to his companions. Then he
ordered them to spread the books among the Shï~‘a.”
The Shï~‘a were
unable to bear al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d. So, Abu Hurayra al-‘Ajali hurried to
Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. He told him that the Shï~‘a
were indignant with the fabrications and heresies of al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d.
Imam al-Baqir renounced him
It was natural
for Imam Abu Ja'far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, to renounce al-Mughï~ra b.
Sa‘ï~d. For the latter disbelieved in Allah. Moreover, he deviated from human
al-Nawa reported on the authority of Imam Abu Ja‘far al-Baqir, peace be on
him, who said: “Allah and His Apostle renounced al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d, and
Banan b. Sm‘an, for they fabricated lies against the members of the House
(ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them.”
Imam Abu ‘Abd
Allah al-Sadiq was so indignant with al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d that he said: “May
Allah curse al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d. May Allah curse the Jewish woman with whom
al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d sat. For he learned from her magic, jugglery, and false
things. Al-Mughï~ra fabricated lies against my father, so Allah deprived him of
faith. If some people fabricate lies against me, Allah will make them taste the
heat of the iron. By Allah, we are mere servants. Allah created and chose us.
We do neither harm nor benefit. If Allah has mercy on us, that is out of His
mercy. If He tortures us, that is out of our sins. We will die. We will be
buried. We will be raised from the dead and reckoned. May Allah curse them (the
fabricators). They hurt Allah. They hurt Allah's Apostle in his grave. They
hurt the Commander of the Faithful, Fatima, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. Now, they
The Revolt of al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d
Sa‘ï~d announced his revolt in Kufa. Khalid b. ‘Abd Allah al-Qasri heard of
that. So, he sent a phalanx to arrest al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d. Then he ordered him and his companions to be
Unbelief and Polytheism
Polytheism appeared during the Umayyad time. Spiteful persons brought that to
the Moslem countries to destroy them. The Umayyad government refrained from
punishing unbelievers and polytheists. Hence, they spread among the Moslems.
Accordingly, Imam Abu Ja‘far al-Baqir and his son Imam al-Sadiq, peace be
on them, resisted unbelief and polytheism.
One day while
Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, was sitting in the yard of the
Kaba, a man came and questioned him:
- Did you see
Allah when you worshipped Him?
- I do not
worship the thing which I do not see.
- How did you
-No eyes see
Him with the faculty of sight.
hearts see Him through the
belief. Allah cannot be known
correspondence (i.e., He cannot be
material things are known through
sense), nor can
He be perceived through the
senses, nor is
He like any person. He is referred
to by His
miraculous tokens and known
signs. There is no tyranny or
His dominion. Such is Allah.
There is no god
Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, refuted the views of the man. The Imam,
peace be on him, supported his answer with the bight dimensions of monotheism.
The man was astonished with the words of the Imam, peace be on him. So, he
said: “Allah knows very well where to place His message.”
The talk about
Allah's attributes, whether they are simple or compound, became widespread.
Hence, Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, prevented (the Moslems) from
Imam al-Baqir and a Syrian Scholar
‘Atiya narrated that a Syrian scholar came to Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir),
peace be on him, and said to him: “I have a question. I had asked the scholars
about the question. However, they were unable to answer it.”
“What is it?”
asked the Imam.
“My question is
about the first thing Allah created. Some (people) answered me with
self-determining. Some of them answered me with the pen. Some of them answered
me with the spirit,” replied the Syrian scholar.
al-Baqir, peace be on him, explained: “The people did not reach the correct
answer. I will tell you: Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, was and there was
nothing other than him. He was Almighty, and no one was before His might. That
is because of these words of Him, the Exalted: ‘Glory be to your Lord, the Lord
of might, above what they describe.’
was before the creature. If the thing was created from the thing, that would
never end. Therefore, Allah was eternal. There was nothing other than Him. Then
He created water. Then He created all things from water.”
scholar asked: “O Abu Ja‘far, what is the meaning of the words of Him, the
Exalted: Do not those who disbelieve realize that the heavens and the earth
were rataq and we made them fitq? what is rataq and this fitq? ”
“The earth was
rataq (means) that no rain came down from it,” answered Abu Ja‘far, peace be
on him, “and that the earth was fitq (means) that no plants came out of it.”
scholar stopped. He could not find any opposition. So, Said: “I testify that
you are one of the children of prophets, and your knowledge is theirs.”
said: “Jahm b. Safwan wanted to debate with some of the Samaniya on some theological matters. They said to him:
'We will debate with you. If you defeat us, we will follow your religion. If we
defeat you, you shall follow our religion.
were the first to question):
- Do you not
say that you have a God?
- Have you seen
- Have you
heard His words?
- Have you
- How do you
know that you have God?
- Do you not
say that you have spirit?
- Have you seen
- Have you
heard its words?
- Such is
Allah. No one can see Him, hear His words, and smell him. The eyes cannot see
him. He is not in a place other than a place.
were strong debates between the Moslems and the Christians at that time.
Yohanna al-Dimashqi was the thinker of the Christians. He wrote a treatise to
answer the Moslems. He was the friend of Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya. His son Sirgon
was in charge of the financial affairs in Damascus.
Umayyad government was indifferent to this ideological debates. So, may people
tried to doubt Islamic ideological principles.
followed an oppressive policy against the Moslems. They persecuted them and
deprived them of their material and spiritual rights. Hence, the Moslems led
violent revolts against the Umayyad government to overthrow it.
is some revolts that occurred at the time of Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir),
peace be on him:
The Revolt of Medina
Mu‘awiya went too far in oppression and tyranny. He committed all grave sins.
He violated the sacredness of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his
family. For he killed al-Husayn, the prophet's grandson. Moreover, he ordered
the rest of the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, to
be taken as prisoners. That was at the tragedy of Karbala'.
this connection, ‘Abd Allah b. Hanzala, a leader of the revolt, said: “By
Allah, we revolted against Yazï~d because we were afraid that stones would be
thrown at us from the sky. By Allah, if there had been some people with me, I
would have fought against Yazï~d bravely to please Allah. For Yazï~d married
mothers and their daughters. He drank wine and forgot to perform the prayers.”
a leader of the revolt, said: “Yazï~d gave me a hundred thousand (dinars).
However, I will tell you about him: By Allah, he drinks wine. By Allah, he gets
so intoxicated that he forgets to perform the prayers.”
these reasons, the people of Medina decided to break their pledge of allegiance
to Yazï~d. Then, they dismissed their governor. They pursued the Umayyads.
b. al-Hakam thought that the people of Medina would attack his women. So, he
hurried to ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar and asked him to protect his women from the
revolutionists. However, the latter refused to accept that. Then he went to
Imam Zayn al-‘Abidïn, peace be on him. The Imam, peace be on him, responded
to him. He forgot the mistreatment of Marwan towards the members of the House
(ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. He spent on the women of Marwan. Then Marwan
fled Medina (Yathrib), for he was afraid of the revolutionists.
the tyrannical ruler, Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya, sent a large army to occupy Medina
(Yathrib). He entrusted the army to Moslem b. ‘Aqaba, who said: “By Allah, I
will destroy (Medina.)”
b. ‘Aqaba advanced against Medina. After some bloody battles, he was able to
occupy it. When his army entered Medina, it began killing the innocent people,
the children, and the old men and women.
bloody battles, Medina lost eighty Companions of Allah's Apostle, may Allah
bless him and his family. Thus, no one of those who participated at the Battle
of Badr remained alive. Medina also lost seven hundred persons of Quraysh and
of the Ansar (supporters). Moreover, it lost ten thousand persons of common
Then Moslem b.
‘Aqaba ordered the people of Medina to pledge allegiance to Yazï~d b.
Mu‘awiya. He said to them: “You are the slaves of Yazï~d. He will behave with
you however he wishes. Whoever refuses that, I will behead him.”
said: “Imam Zayn al-‘‘Abidïn hurried to the grave of his grandfather,
Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, to seek protection with
it. However, he was arrested and brought to Moslem b. ‘Aqaba. When Moslem b.
‘Aqaba saw the Imam, he shook all over out of the solemnity of the Imam. He stood up for him. Then, he said to him:
‘Ask me for your needs.’ So, the Imam intercede with him for those who were
sentenced to death. Moslem b. ‘Aqaba responded to the Imam. When the Imam
left, Moslem was asked about his attitude towards him :‘You had abused this
young man and his fathers. So, why did you honor him?' Because he filled my heart
with fear,’ replied Moslem.”
The Revolt of the Repentant
The Shi‘a of
Kufa wrote many letters to Imam Husayn, the Lord of martyrs, peace be on him.
In their letters, they pledged allegiance to him. They asked him to come to
them. When the Imam came to them, they deserted him. Afterwards, the Shi‘a of
Kufa repented of the sin they committed against the Imam. They thought that
there would be no penance for their sin except the revolt against the Umayyad
government, avenging the blood of Imam Husayn, peace be on him, and murdering
the criminals who killed him.
The leader of
the Repentant was Sulayman b. Sirt al-Khuza‘i. The Shi‘a elected him as a
general leader for the revolt. The asked him to draw political and military
plans and to exchange letters with the Shi‘a inside and outside Iraq.
collected money and donations. Meanwhile, they kept their revolt secret. When
Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya had died, the Repentant announced their violent revolt.
That was in the year 65 A.H. Their number was four hundred persons. Their motto
was: “Let us avenge the blood of al-Husayn.”
motto was used for the first time in Kufa. It shook the position of those who
committed the most horrible crime in the history of mankind.
headed for ‘Ayn al-Warda. Then the Syrians advanced against them. The two
parties met. Violent battles took place between them. The Repentant showed
extreme courage. Some of their leaders died martyrs at those battles.
Among them were
Sulayman b. Sirt al-Khuza‘i, al-Musayyab b. Nujayya, ‘Abd Allah b. Sa‘d, and
were unable to fight against the Syrians. So, they withdrew from the
battlefield and returned to Kufa at night. However, the Syrians did not pursue
With that the
revolt of the Repentant ended. Though the Repentant were unable to overthrow
the Umayyad government, they filled the hearts of the Umayyads with fear.
Meanwhile, they gladdened the members of the house (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on
The Revolt of al-Mukhtar
the most brilliant figure in Arab and Islamic history. He was the most
prominent politician in drawing plans. He had much knowledge of psychology and
mass media. Hence, he moved the feelings of the people and enlightened their
intellect through sermons and poetry. Moreover, he made use of acting,
demonstrations, and rumors.
He was among
the main figures of the Shi‘a. He was among the swords of the family of the
Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Some orientalists said:
“Al-Mukhtar was loyal to movement. He supported his followers. He treated
Arabs and non-Arabs with justice. Hence, Islam spread among non-Arabs.” Wilhawzin doubted that al-Mukhtar wanted to
avenge the blood of al-Husayn to hold the reins of government.
The people accused
al-Mukhtar of claiming prophecy, and the like. They accused him of that
because he wanted to avenge the blood of Imam Husayn, peace be on him, to
overthrow the Umayyad government, and to treat Arabs and non-Arabs with
justice. He did his best to follow the policy of Imam Ali, the Commander of
the Faithful, peace be on him, in economy and society.
pious. He conformed to the teachings of religion. The historians said: “During
his short-term government, al-Mukhtar fasted very much to show thankfulness to
Allah, the Exalted. For Allah granted him success to support the pure family
(of the Prophet) and to destroy the Umayyads.”
Al-Mukhtar scared the Murderers
terrified those who killed Imam Husayn, peace be on him. So, some of them
escaped to ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan to protect them from al-Mukhtar.
b. al-Hajjaj al-Taghlubi escaped to ‘Abd al-Malik and said to him: “I have
escaped to you from Iraq.”
shouted at him, saying: “You are a liar. You have not escaped to us. However,
you have escaped from the blood of al-Husayn. You have feared for your blood.
So, you have sought protection with us.
of the murderers escaped to b. al-Zubayr and joined his army. For they were
afraid of al-Mukhtar.
al-Mukhtar spread scare and terror in the houses of those who killed Imam
Husayn, peace be on him. He filled the hearts of the murderers with terror.
Among those who were afraid of al-Mukhtar was Asma' b. Kharija, one of
those who killed Imam Husayn, peace be on him.
said: “A black fire will come down from the sky. The fire will burn the house
of Asma'.” When the latter heard the words of the former, he fled Kufa.
Al-Mukhtar killed the Murderers
executed quickly those who participated in murdering the Lord of the youth of
Heaven, Imam Husayn, peace be on him. He killed the wicked criminal, b.
Marjana. He also killed ‘Umar b. Sa‘d and his son Hafs. Then, he sent their
heads to Medina (Yathrib) as a gift to the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt),
peace be on them. Hence, the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on
them, became glad. Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Sadiq, peace be on him, reported
their rejoicing, saying: “No Hashimite woman combed her hair till al-Mukhtar
sent us the heads of those who killed al-Husayn.” Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on
him, praised and lauded al-Mukhtar. Addressing al-Hakam b. al-Mukhtar, the
Imam said: “May Allah have mercy on your father. He took our right from all
sent Imam Zayn al-‘Abidïn twenty-thousand dinars. The Imam accepted it and
rebuilt the houses of the Banu ‘Aqï~l, which the Umayyads demolished.
The Revolt of Ibn al-Zubayr
As for b.
al-Zubayr, he did not intend to make happy the community and to achieve its
interests. Rather, he wanted the family of al-Zubayr to take the reins of
government. However, the family of al-Zubayr thought of nothing except their
interests. The proof for that is what ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar said to his wife when
she asked him to pledge allegiance to b. al-Zubayr. He said to her: “Have you
not seen the mules which Mu‘awiya used to make the pilgrimage (to Mecca)?
Surely, b. al-Zubayr wants nothing except them.”
al-Zubayr wanted nothing except holding the reins of authority. Through his
revolt, he did not want to please Allah or to achieve the interests of the
community. To take the reins of government, he used all means such as showing
asceticism and worship. He did that to deceive the simple people. Concerning
him Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, peace be on him, said: “He
installed the snare of religion to choose the world.” Now, we will mention some qualities of b.
prominent quality of b. al-Zubayr was miserliness. This quality was the most
important reason for the overthrowing of his government.
reported many examples of his miserliness. Among them is that the poet ‘Abd
Allah b. al-Zubayr al-Asadi came to him and asked him for some money. He said
to him: “O Commander of the Faithful, there is blood relation between you and
me.” ‘Abd Allah thought that b. al-Zubayr would feel pity for him and bestow
upon him. Thus, b. al-Zubayr replied: “Yes, you are right. However, if you
think of such a relation, then all the people belong to one father and one
When ‘Abd Allah
al-Asadi understood that this way was useless, he said to b. al-Zubayr: “O
Commander of the Faithful, I have used up my money.”
did not feel shame of ‘Abd Allah. So, he said to him: “That does not concern
al-Asadi went on begging b. al-Zubayr, saying: “O Commander of the Faithful, my
she-camel has become tired.”
al-Zubayr scolded him, and then he said to him: “Take your she-camel and go
back to your homeland, Najd.”
al-Asadi was unable to bear the words of b. al-Zubayr. Hence, he said to him:
“O Commander of the Faithful, I have unwillingly come to you. May Allah curse
the she-camel that has brought me to you.”
shouted at him, saying: “May Allah curse its rider, too.”
Then ‘Abd Allah
al-Asadi went out, saying:
I see that the
needs are troubles with Abu Khabï~b.
(He) is from
al-A‘yas or from the family of Harb.
(He) has a
blaze as the horse has.
I said to my
companions: Bring me my she-camel to leave Mecca at night.
However, I came
at Dhati ‘Rqin to b. al-Kahiliya, who is from Ma‘ad.
said: “My abdomen is a span of the hand. A little thing of the world is enough
for it.” These words of him made the people mock him.
was very miserly. It was said that he gave the poor from the public treasury.
Yet, he felt that he gave them from the money of his father. His miserliness made him lose his battle with
‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan.
His Enmity towards the ‘Alï~ds
The soul of b.
al-Zubayr was full of hatred and detest towards the members of the House (ahl
al-Bayt), peace be on them. He harbored malice against them to the extent that
he did not bless the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, in his
sermon. He was asked about that, and he said: “He (the Prophet) has an evil
family. They become happy and raise their heads when they hear his name.”
did his best to hurt the family of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his
family. He forgot that the Prophet's family was the source of awareness and
culture of this community. He forgot that the great Prophet did his people many
favors. It was the Prophet who saved b. al-Zubayr's people from the poor desert
life. It was he who built glory and government for them. Moreover, it was he
who made them the lords of peoples and nations.
ordered the ‘Alï~ds to pledge allegiance to him. However, they refused that.
They said to him: “We will not pledge allegiance to you till the community
gathers.” So, he ordered his men to arrest them. Hence, his men arrested the
‘Alï~ds at Zamzam. Then, b. al-Zubayr said to them: “If you do not pledge
allegiance to me, I will kill and burn you.” He appointed time for that.
asked his followers to write to al-Mukhtar, the governor of Kufa, to help
them. He wrote to him and told him that b. al-Zubayr would punish them
al-Mukhtar responded to them. He appointed Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Jadali over a
military phalanx. The members of the phalanx hurried to Mecca. They entered it.
They raised banners and shouted: “Let us avenge the blood of al-Husayn.” They
arrived at the Sacred Mosque.
had ordered wood to be put at the door of the prison. He had ordered the wood
to be burnt when the appointed time would end. Only two days of the appointed
members of the military phalanx could break the door of the prison and released
the Hashimites. They asked b. al-Hanafiya to permit them to fight against b.
al-Zubayr. However, b. al-Hanafiya refused to accept that. Then, he said to
them: “I cannot violate the sacredness of the Sacred Mosque.” Moreover, he
prevented them from attacking b. al-Zubayr. In addition to that, he treated b. al-Zubayr
release of b. al-Hanafiya from the prison of b. al-Zubayr, the poet Kuthayr b.
‘Abd al-Rahman said:
this Shaykh (b. al-Hanafiya) in
prison at Mina
knows that he is just.
was the mortal enemy of the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his
family. He intended to destroy them all. However, Allah, the Exalted, destroyed
The Failure of his Revolt
It was natural
for the revolt of b. al-Zubayr to fail. ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan mentioned the
reasons for the failure of b. al-Zubayar's revolt, saying: “Ibn al-Zubayr was
miserly, stubborn, and self-conceited.”
Umayyad armies, headed by al-Hajjaj b. Yousif al-Thaqafi, attacked b.
al-Zubayr. The latter sought protection with the Sacred House of Allah. He
asked them to grant him security over his life. However, the Umayyad armies
paid no attention to the sacredness of the House. For the attacked it with
was unable to resist the Umayyad armies. Hence, most of his companions asked
al-Hajjaj to grant them security over their lives. Al-Hajjaj did that. Thus,
‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr and few of his companions remained fighting against the
said: “Ibn al-Zubayr was sure of his close death. He was unable to defend
himself. So, he began eating musk for days. He knew that al-Hajjaj would kill
him. Hence, he wanted the musk to come out of his body. Then, al-Hajjaj
arrested and killed him. The musk came out of his body. Al-Hajjaj smelt it.
So, he ordered a cat or a dog to be killed beside him. For he wanted conceal
the musk that came out of the body of b. al-Zubayr.”
The corpse of
b. al-Zubayr remained in the open air. For al-Hajjaj did not ordered it to be
buried. Then, ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan ordered it to be buried.
As for the
economic life at the time of Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, it was paralyzed
and disorderly. For the wealth of the community was confined to the members of
government and their hirelings. They spent it generously on their desires and
pleasures. Meanwhile, they deprived the community of it. So, they made the
community lead a poor life. The prices were so high that the people were unable
to buy their necessary needs such as food and clothes. The poets described this
poor life in their poems. Among them were al-Asadi and al-Numayri.
In his poem
al-Numayri described the oppressive governors who did their best to persecute
Umayyad kings did not punish their governors for their oppression and tyranny
towards the subjects. Rather, they let them behave freely. This led to discords
and disorderly political situations. Accordingly, the people in Khurasan
revolted against the Umayyads and overthrew their government.
As for Imam
Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, he witnessed all the sufferings of
the people. He felt pity for them, for he was their spiritual leader. However,
he was unable to change their miserable economic life.
 W‘az al-Salatin, p.293.
 Hayat al-Imam Musa bin Ja‘far, vol.2,
 Hayat al-Imam al-Hasan, vol.2, p.357.
 Mizan al-I‘tidal, vol.4, p.160.
 Hayat al-Imam al-Hasan, vol.2, p.356.
 Tarikh Baghdad,
 Ibid, vol.6, p.127.
 Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.7, p.319.
 Al-Mufid, Sharh ‘Aqa’id al-Saduq, p.66.
 Wasa’il al-Shi‘a.
 Talkhis al-Shafi, vol.1, p.59.
 Firaq al-Shi‘a, p.84.
 Abi al-Fida’, Tarikh.
 Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.4, p.87.
 Ibid, pp.85-87.
 Mu‘jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol.8, p.140.
 Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.4, p.84.
 A‘lam al-Muwaqqi‘in, vol.1, p.18.
 Al-Aghani, vol.3, p.93.
 Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.4, p.86.
 Ibid,vol.7, p.182.
 Shadharat al-Dhahab, vol.1, p.104.
 Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.7, p.183.
 Ibid, p.184.
 Ibid, p.23.
 Al-Aghani, vol.8, p.16.
 Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.7, p.24.
 Ibid, vol.6, p.155.
 Ibid, vol.4, p.229.
 Ibid, vol.8, p.334.
 Mu‘jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol.14, p.48.
 Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.8, p.335.
 Ta’sis al-Shi‘a li ‘Ulum al-Islam.
 Murujj al-Dhahab, vol.2, p.196.
 Ibid, p.197.
 Ibid, p.73
 Al-Aghani, vol.15, pp.59-63.
 Ibid, vol.11, p.271.
 Ibid, vol.15, pp.59-63.
 Ibn Qays al-Ruqayyat, Diwan, p.176.
 Al-Aghani, vol.5, p.78.
 Al-Tirimmah, Diwan, p.157.
 Hayat al-Imam Musa bin Ja‘far, vol.1,
 Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.5, p.105.
 Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol.1, p.105.
 Al-Aghani, vol.1, p.310.
 Ibid, vol.17, p.89.
 Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat, vol.5, p.246.
 Al-Aghani, vol.9, p.262.
 Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat, vol.8, p.352.
 Al-Aghani, vol.6, p.13.
 Ibid, vol.10, p.60.
 Ibid, p.57.
 Ibid, vol.3, p.276.
 Ibid, vol.4, p.222.
 Ibid, vol.6, p.21.
 Ibid, vol.5, p.109.
 Ibid, p.161.
 Ibid, vol.3, p.307.
 Al-Nahjj, vol.3, p.16.
 Al-Nasai’h al-Kafiya, p.74.
 Ibn Abi al-Haddid, Sharh Nahjj al-Balagha,
 Salim bin Qays, p.45.
 Nazra ‘Amma fi Tarikh al-Fiqh al-Islami,
 Moslem, Sahih, Kitab al-Sayd.
 Nazra ‘Amma fi Tarikh al-Fiqh al-Islami, p.129.
 Ibn al-Bazzaz, Manaqib al-Imam Abi Hanifa,
 Lisan al-Mizan, vol.2, p.69.
 Al-Kashi, Rijal, p.223.
 Mu‘jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol.3, p.364.
 Firaq al-Shi‘a, p.31.
 Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.231.
 Firaq al-Shi‘a, p.31.
 Ibid, p.25.
 Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.230.
 Al-Hur al-‘In, p.168.
 Mizan al-I‘tidal, vol.4, p.162.
 Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.230.
 Al-Kashi, Rijal, p.224.
 Ibn Qutayba, ‘Uyyun al-Akhbar, vol.2, p.151.
 Lisan al-Mizan, vol.6, p.76.
 Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.230.
 Tarikh Dimashq, vol.51, p.45. Zahr al-Adab,
 Bihar al-Anwar.
 A tribe from India.
It believes in reincarnation.
 Ibn Hanbal, al-Radd ‘ala al-Jahamiya wa
 Al-Firaq al-Islamiya fi al-‘Asr al-Umawi,
 Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat.
 Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol.4, p.368.
 Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.3, p.311.
 Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol.7, pp.5-12.
 Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol.2, p.232.
 In ‘Uyyun al-Akhbar wa Funun al-Athar
(p.166), it was mentioned that Marwan b. al-Hakam was sitting beside Moslem b.
‘Aqaba. He heard him cursing Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin. So, he invoked him to kill
the Imam. Thus, he forgot the Imam’s favors.
 Murujj al-Dhahab, vol.3, p.18.
 Al-Mukhtar, p.43.
 Da’irat al-Ma’arif al-Islamiya, vol.3,
 Al-Khawarijj wa al-Shi‘a, p.237.
 Hayat al-Imam al-Husayn, vol.3, p.455.
 Ibn Qutayba, ‘Uyyun al-Akhbar, vol.1, p.103.
 Al-Kashi, Rijal.
 Safinat al-Bihar, vol.1, p.435.
 Hayat al-Imam al-Husayn, vol.2, p.310.
 Sharh Nahjj al-Balagha, vol.7, p.24.
 Abu Khabib was the kunya of ‘Abd Allah b.
 Al-A‘yas were the sons of Umayya b. ‘Abd
 Dhati ‘Irqin was one of the times of the
It was the
time of the Iraqis.
 Ibn al-Kahiliya was b. al-Zubayr. The poet
gibed him with that.
 Al-Siyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa’, p.213.
 Al-Agani, vol.1, p.22.
 Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol.3, p.9.
 Al-Fakhri, p.105.
 Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol.3, p.8.
 Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, pp.374-375.
 Al-Aghani, vol.8, p.31.
 Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.29.
 Al-Jahiz, Hayat al-Hayawan, vol.5,
 He was an oppressive governor.
 Hayat al-Imam Musa bin Ja‘far, vol.1,