The Shï~‘ite Political Thoughts



The Shï~'ite Political Thoughts


The Shï~‘a have adopted political thoughts since the beginning of their history. Among them are political justice, social justice, human rights, abolishing racial discrimination, and the like.
The Shï~‘ite political thoughts depend on Islam which came to spread pure justice, to develop life, to educate man and to prosper his life. Now, we will talk briefly about some of the Shï~‘ite political thoughts. They are as follows:

Economic Welfare


The Shï~‘a believe in the necessity of preparing economic welfare for all people. They regard poverty as a social disaster. So, they think that poverty should be removed from the community by all means. Islam urges Moslems to do that. For this reason, Abu Dharr, the great Moslem leader, revolted against the Umayyad government that deprived the Moslems of their wealth to spread poverty among them. In this connection Abu Dharr said his immortal words: “I wonder at the one who does not find his daily-bread and does not come out drawing his sword.”
The Umayyad government was unable to bear Abu Dharr. For he inflamed the feelings and sentiments of the people. He provoked the people to revolt against the Umayyad governments. Hence, the Umayyads banished him to al-Rabadha, a desert in Saudi Arabia (al-Hijaz). There he suffered from poverty and hunger. However, the gold of the earth was in the hands of the Umayyads.
Among the original objectives of the revolt of Imam Husayn, peace be on him, was that he wanted to save Islamic economy from the Umayyads. Noteworthy, the Umayyads played with Islamic wealth. They used it to satisfy their desires and to support their influence and government. However, Islam orders the rulers to take care of state properties. It orders them to spend such money on developing the public life of the individual and society. Moreover, it prevents them from spending money on the projects that harm the Moslems.

Abolishing Racial Discrimination


Islam has abolished racial discrimination since the beginning of its history. It has regarded it as a social necessity of which life is in need. For racial discrimination shows that the society is backward. In this connection the great Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said: “An Arab is not preferred to a non-Arab nor is a white (person) preferred to a black (person). You all belong to Adam, and Adam belongs to earth.”
In his political commandments to Malik al-Ashtar, Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, said: “People are two kinds. (They are) either your brother in religion or the like of you in creation.” The Imam, peace be on him, carried these words of his completely when he became caliph. He divided gifts equally among the Arabs and the non-Arabs. He did not preferred the Arabs to the non-Arabs. So, the non Arabs followed him, loved him, and sacrificed their souls for him.

Spreading Justice


Islam has taken care of spreading justice among people. For example, the great Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, spread all the concepts of justice among the people. Imam ‘Ali also did that when he became caliph. He speared no effort to establish political and social justice. He treated both his relations and others with justice. During his time, the people confirmed his just practices. Islamic history is full of his just acts. Hence, political and social awareness has prospered throughout history.

Revolt against Oppression


The revolt against oppression and the oppressive is among the basic principles of the Shï~‘a. For this reason, the main leaders of this Shï~‘ite sect revolted against the Umayyad and the Abbasid governments. Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, peace be on him, was the first to revolt against them. Then his sincere student, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, the Companion of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, revolted against them, too.
When Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful peace be on him, became caliph, his government assumed the crucial affairs of the community. It also took care of justice, fairness, and welfare.
During his short-term government, the Imam created genuine awareness in the souls of his followers. Such awareness moved them to revolt against the tyrannical rulers. So, Hijr b. ‘Adi, the great leader, and his companions revolted against Mu‘awiya However, the central government in Kufa was unable to bear the violent attacks of Hijr and his companions. Hence it arrested them, and then it sent them to Syria. There, at the Marjj of Adhra', they were executed. They died martyrs for their great Islamic message that came to spread justice and to establish fairness among the Moslems.
Then, Imam Husayn, peace be on him, the grandson of the great Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, raised the flag of the revolt against the tyrannical ruler of his time, Yazï~d, the grandson of Abu Sufyan, the mortal enemy of Islam.
However, the great Imam (al-Husayn) died martyr for social reform and distributing the blessings of the earth among the poor.
With his immortality, the father of the free (Imam Husayn) has changed the face of Arabic and Islamic history. He has made the Moslems refuse the life of abasement and lead the life of glory and honor. For them, he has opened doors to glory and struggle. Hence, his grandsons and the grandsons of his brothers have led many revolts against oppression throughout Islamic history. They have raised the mottoes of justice and fairness among Moslems.
Al-Wardi said: “The Shï~‘a were the first to hold the revolutionary Islamic views against oppression. The essence of revolt lies in their theories. The Shï~‘a believe in the Imamate. This belief move them to criticize and oppose the ruling class throughout history. It also make them think that every government is usurping and oppressive except when an infallible Imam assume it. Hence, the Shï~‘a always revolt (against governments).”[1]
The Shï~‘a led many revolts during the Umayyad and Abbasid regimes. For they wanted to destroy all kinds of oppression and corruption through achieving social justice in the earth. So, the Shï~‘a is the best of all Islamic sects and doctrines in striving for the word of truth and justice in the earth.

Boldness and Intrepidity


The leaders of the Shï~‘a were full of boldness and intrepidity. So, they were not afraid of any government. They did not submit to any tyrannical ruler. Rather, they resisted bravely all the oppressive rulers throughout Islamic history. For example, b. Marjana (‘Ubayd Allah b. Zyyad) killed the Lord of the youth of Heaven (Imam Husayn), peace be on him. He rejoiced at murdering him. Then he cursed him and his father (Imam ‘Ali) before the people. Among the people was ‘Abd Allah b. Afï~f al-Azidi, the companion of Imam ‘Ali, peace be on him. He was blind then. Thus, he stood in front of b. Marjana and shouted: “O enemy of Allah, you are the liar and your father and the (man) who appointed you and his father. O Ibn Marjana, you kill the sons of Prophets and take the place of men of truth on the pulpit.”
Another example of the brave Shï~‘ite leaders was al-Kumayt b. Zayd al-Asadi. He was so great a poet that he resisted the Umayyads through his poetry. He cursed them openly. Hence, the Umayyads persecuted him. They imprisoned and tortured him. However, he went on spreading his beliefs and principles.
Among those who supported the truth and disdained the Umayyads was al-Farazdaq. That was when he praised Imam Zayn al-‘Abidïn, peace be on him, and dispraised Hisham b. ‘Abd al-Malik, who ignored the position of the Imam and said that he did not know him. Al-Farazdaq said to him:
This is he whose ability the valley of (Mecca) recognizes, and whom the (Sacred) House recognizes (as do) the sanctuary and the area outside the sanctuary (al-hill).
This is the son of the best of Allah's servants. This is the pure pious man, the pure eminent man.
Your words, Who is that?, do not harm him. The Arabs and the non-Arabs know him whom you deny.
So, the Umayyads imprisoned and tortured him.
Hisham b. ‘Abd al-Malik disdained the great martyr, Zayd b. ‘Ali, peace be on him. So, the latter revolted against the former.
During the Abbasid era, a poet appeared. The poet was one of the brilliant Arab poets. He was Di‘bil al-Khuza‘i. He sacrificed his life for Allah. He was indignant with the Abbasid regime, which was as oppressive as the Umayyad. He satirized al-Rashï~d, al-Amïn, al-Ma'mun, al-Mu‘tasim, and Ibrahï~m b. al-Mahdi. He said: “I have carried my piece of wood on my shoulder for forty years. I have found none to hang me on it.”
Indeed, the history of the Shï~‘a is full of heroic attitudes, revolts against oppression, indigence with tyranny, and struggles for the rights of the persecuted.[2]

The Shï~‘a faced Troubles


During those times, the Shï~‘a faced many troubles and hardships. For the Umayyads punished and tortured them severely. They treated them cruelly. They persecuted them officially during the Umayyad government. Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, reported the troubles and hardships the Shï~‘a faced during the time of Mu‘awiya. He said: “Our Shï~‘ites were killed in every city. The hands and the legs were cut off out of accusation. Whoever loved and followed us was imprisoned or his property was plundered or his house was demolished.”[3]
The Kufan Shï~‘ites faced much more troubles and hardships than the other Shï~‘ites. The great poet ‘Abd Allah b. Amir, known as al-Abli, described his troubles and hardships out of his love for the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on him. He said:
They made me homeless when I praised ‘Ali.
They thought that such praise was a dangerous illness in me.
Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir) was asked: “What is your situation?”
“All the people are safe because of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family while I am afraid because of him,” Abu Ja‘far, peace be on him, replied.[4]
When al-Mughï~ra had died, Mu‘awiya appointed Zyyad b. Abï~h as governor over the Shï~‘a. Zyyad deviated from his religion. Hence, he was indignant with the Shï~‘a. Thus, he cut of their hands and their legs and knocked out their eyes. He pursued them every where and hanged them on the trunks of the date palms.[5] Generally speaking, he committed the following crimes against the Shï~‘a:
1. He demolished their houses.
2. He refused to accept their testimony.
3. He imprisoned them.
4. He murdered them.
The historians said: “Al-Fadl b. Dukayn became a Shï~‘ite. His son came to him weeping. Dukayn asked his son: ‘What has made you weep?’ ‘Father,’ the son replied, ‘the people say that you have become a Shï~‘ite.’”[6]
The Umayyads punished severely those who were accused of Shi‘ism. The historians said: “Ibrahï~m b. Hirthima came to Medina. One of the Alï~ds came and greeted him. So, Ibrahï~m said to him: ‘Go away from me. If the Umayyads saw you greeting me, they would kill me.’”[7]
Moreover, the Umayyads ordered their governors to kill the babies who were named ‘Ali. When ‘Ali b. Rabah heard of that, he was afraid. So, he said: “May Allah curse those who called me ‘Ali.” Then, he called himself ‘Ulay.[8]

Precautionary Dissimulation


The Umayyad and Abbasid governments went too far in troubling and killing the Shï~‘ites. Hence, the Imams of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, legislated precautionary dissimulation, which means “Concealing the truth, concealing the belief in it, hiding (beliefs) from the non-Shï~‘a, and leaving supporting them. For that harms religion and the world.”[9]
The Imams legislated precautionary dissimulation to prevent the blood of the Shï~‘a from being shed. For the Umayyads and the Abbasids regarded shedding their blood as lawful.
The Imams ordered the Shï~‘a to use precautionary dissimulation as a basic rule for political and social behavior. Had it not been for this rule, the Umayyads and the Abbasids would have destroyed all the Shï~‘ites.
The Imams of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, strongly ordered their followers (Shï~‘ites) to conceal their beliefs and love for them. For they feared for their lives. In this connection, Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, said: “Taqiya or precautionary dissimulation is my religion and the religion of my fathers. He who has no taqiya has no faith.”[10]
This wise plan protected the doctrine of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. Had it not for it, the Umayyads and the Abbasids would have removed the traces of their doctrine. In this connection, Shaykh al-Tusi said: “No sect was troubled as the Shï~‘a. They suffered from fear all the time. So, they cleaved to precautionary dissimulation (taqiya).”[11]
The Shï~‘a were politically aware when they resorted to precautionary dissimulation. With that they were able to protect their beliefs from their strong malicious opponents.

The Unity of the Shï~‘a


Some authors said that the Shï~‘a were distinguished by a general unity at the time of Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. There was no ideological differences among them during the time of the Imam. Rather, these differences took place after his death.[12] However, the Kaysaniya, who believed in the Imamate of Mohammed b. al-Hanafiya, appeared during the days of Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. As for the Zaydï~s, the Isma‘ilï~s, and the Waqifiya, they appeared after his death.
With this we will end our talk about the Shï~‘a and all the Islamic sects. As for the talk about the qualities of the Shï~‘a in detail, we have prepared a certain study a bout that. May Allah grant us success to publish it as soon as possible, Allah willing.

Scientific Life


The Arabs before Islam belonged to numerous tribes. They moved from one place to another seeking rain pastures. The majority of them led a poor desert life.
When Islam came, their life changed. They left the Bedouin life and followed the civilized life. Most of their situations then changed, too. Their tribal feelings changed into Islamic brotherhood, which had no fanaticism nor tribal customs.
When the Moslems became stable, they began spreading culture and knowledge among the people. That is because culture and knowledge were necessary for developing the society. The Umayyads paid no attention to scientific life. However, two schools were established in Medina (Yathrib), the homeland of culture and knowledge. They are as follows:

The School of the Next Generation


This school took care of Islamic sciences. As for its members, they were Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab, ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr, al-Qasim b. Mohammed b. Abï~ Bakr, Abu Bakr b. ‘Abd al-Rahman b. al-Harith b. Hisham, Sulayman b. Yasar, ‘Ubayd Allah b. ‘Uttba b. Mas‘ud, Kharija b. Zayd.[13]
It is necessary for us to talk briefly about the above-mentioned great figures. They are as follows:

1. Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab


His real name is Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab b. Hazn al-Qarashi al-Makhzumi. He was born two years after the caliphate of ‘Umar.[14] We will mention some of his affairs:

His Scientific Position


He was one of the main scholars of his time. Qattada said: “I have never seen a person more knowledgeable than Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab in the lawful and the unlawful.”[15] Mohammed b. Sa‘ï~d reported on the authority of Makhul, who said: “I traveled all over the land seeking knowledge. However, I have not found a person more knowledgeable than Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab.”[16] Ibn al-Madani said: “I do not think that there is a person among the next generation more knowledgeable than Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab.”[17] Al-Layth reported on the authority of Yahya b. Sa‘ï~d, who said: “Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab was called the Narrator of ‘Umar. He memorized his (‘Umar's) judgments more than the people did.”[18]
Words similar to these have been mentioned. They showed that Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab had a high scientific position, and that he was one of the excellent scholars of his time.
Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab reported many traditions on the authority of Imam Zayn al-‘Abidïn. He learned from him many matters concerning the lawful and the unlawful.
His Reliability
The biographers differed over his (Sa‘ï~d's) reliability. Some of them said that he was reliable depending on the traditions concerning him. The others slandered him and said that he was unreliable. Our master, professor al-Khu'i inclined to stop concerning his affair. For the chain of authorities about praising and dispraising him is incomplete.[19]
‘Umar b. Maymun reported on the authority of his father, who said: “I came to Medina. I asked about the most knowledgeable of all the people of Medina. Then, I had been guided to Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab.”[20] This means that the Umayyad government ordered Maymun to go to Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab, and that it took care of the latter.
Abu Ishaq said: “At that time, the person came to ask about religious opinions. However, the people sent him from one assembly to another till he reached the assembly of Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab. For they hated to give religious opinions.”[21]
Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab was fond of love poetry. He recited it in the mosque of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.[22]

His Death


Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab died in Medina (Yathrib), in the year 94 A. H. It was said that he died in the year 93 A. H. That was during the caliphate of al-Walï~d. When he died, he was 75 years of age.[23]

‘Urwa bin al-Zubayr


His real name is ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr b. al-Awam al-Madani. He was one of the seven jurists of Medina. He was the most knowledgeable of all the people in the traditions of ‘A'isha. He understood all of her narrations and traditions.[24] For she was his aunt. He was present with his father al-Zubayr, who fought against Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, (at the Battle of the Camel). ‘Urwa was 13 years old. So, the Imam regarded him as young.[25]
‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan praised ‘Urwa very much. Concerning him, he said:” Whoever is pleased to look at a man from the people of the garden, he must look at ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr.”[26]
‘Urwa said: “If you see the person doing a good deed, know that he has other good deeds. When you see him doing an evil deed, know that he has other evil deeds.”[27]

His Death


He died in the year 91 or 92 A. H.[28]
3. ‘Ubayd Allah bin ‘Abd Allah
His real name is ‘Ubayd Allah b. ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Uttba b. Mas‘ud al-Hadhli. He was given the kunya of Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Madani. Al-‘Ajali said: “‘Ubayd Allah b. ‘Abd Allah was blind. He was one of the jurists of Medina. He belonged to the next generation. He was reliable, righteous, and knowledgeable. He was the teacher of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azï~z.”[29] He was fond of love poetry.[30] He died in the year 99 A. H.[31]

4. ‘Abd al-Rahman


b. al-Harith al-Makhzumi
He was given the kunya of Abu al-Harith al-Madani. He reported (traditions) on the authority of a group of (people). Among them were Zayd b. ‘Ali b. al-Husayn, al-Hasan al-Basri, Hakï~m b. Hakï~m, and the like. Al-Nisa'i said: “He is not reliable.” However, b. Sa‘d said: “He is reliable.” Ahmed said: “He is neglected.” ‘Ali b. al-Madani regarded him as a weak (traditionalist). He died at the beginning of the caliphate of Abu Ja‘far al-Mansur.[32]

5. Sulayman bin Yasar al-Hilali


He was given the kunya of Abu Ayyub al-Madani. He reported traditions on the authority of Umm Salama and‘A'isha. He was one of the scholars of the people after Sa‘ï~d b. al-Musayyab. He died in the year 107 A. H. When he died, he was 73 years of age.[33]

6. Kharija bin Zayd b. Thabit


al-Ansari al-Najjari
He was given the kunya of Abu Zayd al-Madani. He reported on the authority of a group (of people). A group of (people) reported on his authority.
Ibn Sa‘d said: “Kharija was reliable. He reported many traditions.”[34] Al-Dhahabi did not mention him with the memorizers of the traditions.

7. Al-Qasim bin Mohammed


bin Abu Bakr
He was given the kunya of Abu Mohammed. He reported on the authority of his father and his aunt, ‘A'isha, and the ‘Abadila. A group of people reported on his authority.
Al-Bukhari said: “His father was killed, so he remained an orphan under the care of ‘A'isha.” He added: “He (al-Qasim) was the best of the people of his time.”
Abu al-Zanad said: “I have never seen (a person) more knowledgeable than him in the Sunna, nor have I seen (a person) cleverer than him.”[35]
Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, married his (al-Qasim's) daughter, and she born him Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Sadiq, peace be on him.
Shaykh al-Tusi sometimes numbered him as one of the companions of al-Sajjad, and he sometimes numbered him as one of the companions of al-Baqir, peace be on him.
Al-Qasim died in the year 102 A.H.[36]
With this we will end our talk about the seven jurists who formed a school called the School of the Next Generation.

The School of the Ahl al-Bayt


It was the first ideological school to be established in Islam. It spared no effort to develop the life of the Moslems. It was not confined to Islamic legislation. Rather, it took care of knowledge and sciences such as philosophy, wisdom, medicine, chemistry, theology, policy, administration, economy, and the like.
This school played an important role in recording sciences. Noteworthy, the first and the second Caliph prevented (the Moslems) from recording traditions. For they claimed that such an act would have an effect on the Book of Allah. However, this claim is baseless.
Sayyid Husayn al-Sadr said that the Shï~‘a were the first to take care of jurisprudence. He mentioned some of the Shï~‘ite authors. Among them is ‘Ali b. Abu Rafi'. He was one of the main Shï~‘ites at the time of Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, peace be on him. He was the secretary of the Imam. He wrote a book on the techniques of jurisprudence.
Among the authors was Salï~m b. Qays al-Hilali al-Kufi. He was one of the companions of Imam ‘Ali, peace be on him. His life coincided with the time of al-Hajjaj, namely during the period of the Umayyad government. Al-Hjjaj, the criminal, tried to kill him. So, he sought protection with Aban b. ‘Ayyash. When death came to him, he gave his book to Aban. It was the first Shï~‘ite book to appear. Aban b. ‘Ayyash reported the book.[37]
However, the school of the ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them, took care of all sciences. It was not confined to a certain science. Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, peace be on him, was the first to establish it. Then, the pure Imams from his children took care of it. Then, Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, took care of it. Many scholars came to Imam al-Baqir to study under him. Reliable scholars reported many sciences on his authority. We will mention that when we talk about the companions and reporters of Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him.
We have mentioned this school in detail in our book “The Life of Imam Musa bin Ja‘far.” It has been also published in “A‘yan al-Shï~‘a” and the “al-Adwa' Magazine.”

Public Cultural Life


As for the public cultural life at the time of Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, it was very shallow. There was no measure for the morals and ideals which Islam had brought. Rather, the people returned to their customs before Islam. They vied in fathers and lineage with each other. This phenomenon can be easily seen in the poetry of that time. The poets vied in lineage with each other. So, they satirized each other. An example of this is al-Farazdaq and Jarï~r. Their poetry is full of satire.
Al-Kumayt, the poet of the ‘Alids, seized this opportunity. He praised laudable deeds of his people from Madar. He preferred his people to the Qahtaniyyï~n. With that he could create a discord among the tribes. So, he played an important role in overthrowing the Umayyad government.[38]
Di‘bil al-Khuza‘i defended the Qahtaniyyï~n. I think that al-Kumayt and Di‘bil agreed with on another on that to sow the seeds of discord among the tribes to weaken them. Di‘bil composed a poem of six hundred lines as an answer to al-Kumayt's poem.[39]
The Nazariya vied in glory with the Yemaniya. Hence, tribalism moved both the people of the cities and the people of the desert to the extent that the country was full of discords.[40]
However, the general style of the literature of that time was boasting and satire. It represented neither awareness nor seriousness in the thoughts. It had no summons to good. Rather, it summoned the people to follow harmful discords.

Political Life


As for the political life at that time, it was very disorderly. Discords and troubles prevailed the people. Fearful events occurred. There was no security. The hearts of the people were full of terror. The people were restless out of the bloody revolts. Thousands of people were the victims of those revolts. For the Umayyads followed an evil policy. They were indifferent to the interests of the Moslems. Rather, they did their best to achieve their aims and desires. Now, we will talk about some of the aspects of the political life at that time.

Political Parties


At that time numerous parties were formed. The parties followed various trends. Violent struggles took place among them. They used all political ways to hold the reins of government. Hence, they paid no attention to the interests of the community. The following is some of these parties.

1. The Umayyad Party


It was the ruling party at that time. It took the reins of government through various kinds of deception and misleading tactics. The popular forces killed ‘Uthman. However, the Umayyads used his blood as a motto to achieve their political objectives. They provoked all people to avenge the blood of their leader, ‘Uthman. They forgot that they had deserted him. They had not supported him when the revolutionists besieged his house and asked him to establish social justice. He was besieged for days. The Umayyads heard of that. However, they did not defend him. Then, the revolutionists killed ‘Uthman. Afterwards, the Umayyads summoned the people to avenge his blood. They used his blood as means to assume the authority and to plunder the wealth of the country. When they undertook the authority, they adopted all illegal political ways. The following is some of them:
A. They (the Umayyads) deceived the Syrians. They told them that they were the nearest people to Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. So, the Syrians believed them. However, the Syrians knew the deception of the Umayyads when the Abbasids took the rein of government. Some poets composed poems concerning that.[41]
B. The Umayyads formed committees and ordered them to fabricate traditions and to ascribe them to the great Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. They ordered the fabricators to say that the Umayyads were the lords of all the creatures, and that they were the nearest of all the people to Allah, the Exalted. So, they spent a lot of money on the fabricators who supported their government.
C. They used the poets as means to praise and laud them. They gave them many gifts and spent a lot of money on them. For poetry was strong mass media at that time.
The historians said that Mohammed b. Marwan gave a lot of money to his poet, Abu al-Abbas the blind. So, the latter did not ask anybody for money after the death of the former.[42]
The poet A‘sha Rabï~‘a praised and lauded ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan. So, ‘Abd al-Malik spent a lot of money on him.[43]
The poet ‘Adï~ b. al-Raqqa‘ praised and lauded al-Walï~d b. ‘Abd al-Malik. So, al-Walï~d gave him many gifts and spent a lot of money on him.
The poet al-Ahwas praised and lauded Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya.[44] Hence, Yazï~d gave him many gifts and spent a lot of money on him. The poet forgot that Yazï~d drank wine, played with the monkeys, killed Imam al-Husayn-peace be on him-, and attacked Medina, the city of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.
However, the Umayyads used the poets to support their policy and to impose their government on the people.

2. The Zubayri Party


This party thought that al-Zubayr's family, headed by ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr, was the most appropriate of all the people for government. For they were the relations of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Al-Zubayr's mother Safiya was the aunt of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Besides al-Zubayr was one of the six candidates of the consultative committee which ‘Umar b. al-Khattab nominated.
The main propagator and supporter of this party was b. Qays al-Ruqayyat, a great poet. He praised and lauded Mas‘ab b. al-Zubayr.[45] He summoned the people to revolt against the Umayyads.[46]
Among the combatant poets of this party was al-Nabigha al-Ju‘di. He praised and lauded ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr. He boasted of his justice. He likened him to Abu Bakr , ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman. So, he thought that ‘Abd Allah was appropriate for the caliphate.
However, this party did not last for a long time. For al-Hajjaj destroyed it when he killed ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr.

3. The Kharijites


The Kharijites believed in revolting against all the rulers in the Islamic countries, for the rulers did not believe in their principles and thoughts. In the previous chapters, we have mentioned some of their principles. As for their propagators, they were many. Among them was al-Tirimmah. He praised and lauded them.[47]
They had other poets. They glorified their principles, and urged their people to revolt against the governments then.

4. The Shi‘a


The main Moslem figures joined this party. Among them were Salman al-Farisi, ‘Ammar b. Yasir, Abu Dharr, and Khuzayma b. Thabit al-Ansari, called the man of two testimonies because the Prophet made his testimony equal to two men. They played an important role in spreading and defending Islam. They firmly believed in the succession of the members of the house (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, to authority after the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family.
That is because the members of the house (ahl al- Bayt), peace be on them, were the family of the Prophet, life-boats, and safety for the creatures, as the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said. Besides they had countless talents and outstanding merits.
At the time of Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, al-Kumayt al-Asadi was the spokesman of the members of the house (ahl al- Bayt), peace be on them. He supported and defended them. In that he depended on the Holy Koran, saying.
We have found a verse concerning you in the verses beginning with Ha Mï~m.
The pious and the non-pious from us have explained it.
In other than the verses beginning with Ha Mï~m, there are successive verses concerning you.
They are as signposts (of knowledge) for the possessor of tiring doubt.
Al-Kumayt referred to the verses that concerned the members of the house (ahl al- Bayt), peace be on them. However, the people gave them another meaning.
Al-Kumayt defended the Shï~‘a in his poem called al-Hashimiyat. The Shï~‘a used al-Kumayt's poems as proofs for their beliefs. Al-Kumayt's poems are among the most wonderful ideological wealth in Islam. In the Shï~‘ite political poetry, the poets praised the members of the house (ahl al- Bayt), peace be on them, not for money. Rather, they praised them to show loyalty to the truth.
With this we will end our talk about the political parties at the time of Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. There were violent struggles among the parties. History and literature books have mentioned the struggles.

Discords and Disorders


The Moslem community suffered from discords and disturbances. Moreover, the bad Umayyad politicians spread fear and terror all over the Islamic countries.
The famous poet al-Harith b. ‘Abd Allah described those discords and disorders.[48] Another poet called al-Abbas b. al-Walï~d described them, too.[49] He said that the discords were like the mountains. All those discords and disorders resulted from the Umayyad policy based on tyranny, oppression, and punishing the people severely. So, the people revolted against government and overthrew it.

Play and Luxury


The Umayyads king indulged in play and luxury. They were fond of impudence and pleasures. So, they spent the wealth of the Moslems on their pleasures. In addition to that the rich participated with the Umayyads in pleasures and impudence. They used all kinds of luxury. With that they deviated from the life of the Moslems during the lifetime of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. The people at that time renounced worldly pleasures. ‘A'isha was asked about her garment during the days of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and she answered: “By Allah, it was not silk nor cotton nor flax. Rather, it was (made of) the hair of camels.”[50]
However, this life changed completely during the time of the Umayyads. The young men of the Banu Marwan wore embellished clothing.[51] Marwan b. Aban b. ‘Uthman wore seven shirts, one was shorter than the other. On them, he wore a one thousand-dirham Adani cloak.[52] During his rule over Medina, ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azï~z wore a four-hundred dirham garment. However, he said: “How hoarse and thick (this garment) is!”[53]
Harun b. Salih reported on the authority of his father, who said: “We gave many dirhams to the washerman to wash our clothes with suds of the clothes of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azï~z, for it was full of perfume.”[54]
The clothes of the women of Medina (Yathrib) changed. They wore silk-clothes, and the like.[55] Men also wore colored clothes.[56] 

Excessive Dowries


Among the aspects of the luxury at that time was excessive dowries. ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abï~ Bakr, the husband of ‘A'isha, daughter of Talha, died. So, Mas‘ab b. al-Zubayr married her and gave her one million dirhams as a dowry.[57]
The historians talked about her luxury saying: “When ‘A'isha went to make the pilgrimage (to Mecca), sixty mules with howdahs and luggage accompanied her.”
‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr said to her: “O ‘A'isha, O Possessor of sixty mules, such do you make the pilgrimage (to Mecca) every year?[58]
Excessive dowries were signs of luxury at that time. However, the Umayyads and the like were known for that.

Luxurious Women


The ruling group became so rich that its women were luxurious. The historians reported: “‘Atika, daughter of Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya, asked ‘Abd al-Malik to permit her to make the pilgrimage (to Mecca). He said to her: ‘Increase your needs and seek the help of (your folk women), for ‘A'isha daughter of Talha will make the pilgrimage (to Mecca).’ She did that. When she was on the road between Mecca and Medina, a procession came and separated her group. She said: ‘I think that she is ‘A'isha.’ She asked about her. They said: ‘That is her treasurer.’ Then a larger procession came and separated her group. She said: ‘That is ‘A'isha.’ ‘No,’ they replied ‘that is her maid.’ Then other processions followed. Then a procession of three hundred camels came. Hawdas and domes were on them. So, ‘Atika said: ‘What with Allah is better and more lasting.’”[59]
The historians reported other examples of luxurious women. Among them is that Mas‘ab gave eighty pearls to ‘A'isha as a gift. When he entered to give them to her, he found her sleeping. He woke her. When she saw the gift, she paid no attention to it. Then she said: “Sleep is more lovable with me (than the gift).”[60]

Singing


Singing was famous during the Umayyad time. Medina (Yathrib) took care of singing. The Umayyad government intentionally encouraged singing in the city to degrade its holy position in the souls of the Moslems.
Abu al-Faraj said: “Neither the scholar nor the worshiper of Medina denied singing.”[61]
Malik b. Anas, the jurist of Medina, had knowledge of singing. Husayn b. Dahman al-Ashqar reported. He said: “I was in Medina. I was lonely in the street. So, I began singing: O Rabab, what is wrong with your family? They are frowning. It seems that they are angry. However, I heard a man saying: ‘O Sinner, you do not sing well. You have prevented the singerstress. You have announced the atrocity.’ Then he began singing. So, I asked him: May Allah make you righteous. From where have you learned this singing? He replied: ‘When I was a boy, I followed the singers and learned from them. Mother said to me: My little son, if the singer has an ugly face, no one will listen to his singing. So, leave singing and seek jurisprudence. For the ugly face is not necessary for jurisprudence. Hence, I left the singers and followed the jurists. Then I said to him. Repeat (singing). He said: No, do you want to say that you have learned singing from Malik b. Anas?’ However, I had not known that the man was Malik b. Anas.”[62]
Dahman, the singer, witnessed before the judge for a man from Medina against an Iraqi. The judge accepted Dahman's testimony. The Iraqi man said to the judge: “He is Dahman, the singer.” “I know him,” replied the judge , “If I did not know him, I would ask (the people) about him.” The Iraqi man continued: “He sings. He teaches slave girls singing.” “May Allah forgive you and us. We all sing,” said the judge.[63]
In this manner singing spread in Medina, which was the capital of Islam. Without doubt, it was the Umayyad government that encouraged singing to degrade the holy position of Medina, which was the capital of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family.
The Umayyad government encouraged singing and spent money on singers. The historians reported. They said: “Mi‘bid, Malik b. Abu al-Samh, and b. ‘A'isha came to Yazï~d b. ‘Abd al-Malik. He ordered one thousand dinars to be given to each of them.”[64]
Al-Walï~d b. Yazï~d spent generously on the singers. He gave Mi‘bid twelve thousand dinars. The he summoned all the singers of Saudi Arabia (Hijaz) and gave them many gifts.[65]
Singing became famous. The Umayyad king approached singers. They spent generously on them. So, the people practiced singing.
The historians reported: “When al-Walï~d b. Yazï~d became caliph, he sent for ‘Atrad from Medina. ‘Atrad was handsome. He sang beautifully. So, al-Walï~d tore his clothes and threw himself into the pond of wine. He was still in it. Then he was brought out of it. He looked like a dead person. When he recovered, he said to ‘Atrad: ‘It is as if that I saw you returning to Medina standing before its assemblies and saying: The Commander of the Faithful summoned me. I entered his house. He asked me to sing. When I sang, he tore his clothes and threw himself into the pond of wine. By Allah, if your lips mentioned a thing of what had happened and I heard of that, I would behead you.’ Then, he gave one thousand dinars to ‘Atrad, who took it and went away.”[66]
The historians reported many examples of this. These examples show the impudence of the Umayyads. They show that the Umayyads deviated from Islam, which ordered them to refrain from the life of play and impudence.

Fabricated Traditions


The Moslems suffered from many hardships and misfortunes. Among them was fabricating traditions. Some people had no relationship with religion. They fabricated traditions to distort Islam and to divert the Moslems from the precepts of their religion and the teachings of their Prophets.
Mu‘awiya b. Abu Sufyan was the first to form committees to fabricate traditions and ascribe them to the great Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. So, the committees fabricated traditions and proclaimed them among the people. Then the narrators memorized the fabricated traditions. If they had known that the traditions were fabricated, they would have abandoned them.
In this connection, al-Mada'ini said: “Many fabricated traditions appeared. Slanders spread. The jurists, the judges, and the governors followed that. The hypocrite readers (of the Koran) and the deprived ones, who showed humility and asceticism, were the most dangerous of all the people in that. They fabricated traditions to enjoy the favor of their rulers, to approach their assemblies, and to get money and country estates and houses. Then those (fabricated) narrations and traditions reached the religious ones who regarded lying and slander as unlawful. They accepted the narrations and the traditions and reported them. They thought that the narrations and the traditions were authentic. If they had known that the narrations and the traditions were fabricated, the would not have reported them nor would have they believed in them.”[67]
Mu‘awiya and the Umayyads ordered the narration and the traditions to be fabricated to degrade the Prophet's pure family whose love Allah made obligatory in the Book. They entrusted the committees to create narrations and traditions concerning the Companions (of the Prophet). For they wanted to defame the Hashimites.
The traditionalist b. ‘Arafa, known as Naftawayh, said: “(The committees) fabricated most traditions concerning the Companions (of the Prophet) during the days of the Umayyads. For they (the committees wanted to enjoy the favor of the Umayyads. With the traditions they (the Umayyads) thought that they would degrade the Hashimites.”[68]
Mu‘awiya also entrusted the committees to fabricate traditions to dispraise Imam ‘Ali, peace be on him, and defame him.
Ibn Abu al-Haddï~d said: “Our Shaykh, Abu Ja‘far al-Iskafi mentioned that Mu‘awiya appointed a group of the Companions (of the Prophet) and a group of the next generation to fabricate traditions concerning ‘Ali to slander him and to renounce him. He gave them money for that. So, they fabricated what pleased him. Among them were Abu Hurayra, ‘Amru b. al-‘As, and al-Mughï~ra b. Shu‘ba. Among the next generation was ‘Urwa b. al-Zubayr.”[69]
Concerning the fabricated traditions, Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, said: “They narrated ugly (traditions) concerning ‘Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn, peace be on him. Allah knew that they reported nothing except lying and falsehood.”[70]
Fabricated traditions spread widely. The traditionalist ‘Asim b. Nabï~l said: “The righteous person did not lie in a thing except in traditions.” Waqï~‘ said: “Though Ziyad b. ‘Abd Allah was honest in the tradition, he was a liar.” Yazï~d b. Harun said: “The traditionalists of Kufa were liars in traditions. The Sufyaniyyin were also liars.”[71] Moslem reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, ordered dogs to be killed except hunting and cattle dogs.”[72] 

Exploiting al-Zahri


The Umayyads exploited the traditionalist al-Zahri. So, he fabricated traditions to defend and support the Umayyad government. Among his fabricated traditions is that he reported on the authority of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, that he said: “Luggage is not tied but to three (mosques): this mosque of mine, the Kaba, and Jerusalem.”
Al-Zahri regarded Jerusalem as the Kaba. He fabricated this tradition when the Umayyads prevented the Syrians making the pilgrimage (to Mecca). For the Umayyads wanted to prevent the Syrians from meeting the Saudis whom b. al-Zubayr ruled. Hence, the Syrians made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem instead of Mecca.[73]

Fabricated Narration against Imam Abu Ja‘far


Among the fabricated narrations against Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, is what Abu al-Bakhtari reported. He said: “Abu Hanï~fa came to Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. The Imam said to him: 'The sunna (practices) of my grandfather has become obliterated. You have enlivened it. You are the helper of every grieved person. The perplexed ones follow you. You guide them to the plain path. So, may Allah help you and grant you success to participate the righteous in the way.”[74]
This is one of the fabricated narrations of Abu al-Bakhtari. In his biography, it was mentioned that he was the most dangerous of all the creatures in telling lies.

Fabricators against Abu Ja‘far


Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, was troubled by a group of fabricators. For they fabricated traditions and narrations ascribed them to him. The following is some of them:

1. Bayan bin Sam‘an al-Hindi


Bayan belonged to the Banu Tamï~m.[75] He fabricated traditions and attributed them to the Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.
Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir) and his son Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on them, asked their followers to renounce Bayan, for he fabricated traditions and ascribed them to the Imams, peace be on them.[76]
Zarara reported on the authority of Imam Abu Ja‘far, peace be on him, who said: “May Allah curse Bayan, for he fabricated (traditions) and attributed them to my father. I bear witness that my father ‘Ali b. al-Husayn was a righteous servant.”[77] 
After the death of Abu Hashim, Bayan claimed prophecy. Then he wrote to Abu Ja‘far to follow him and recognize his prophecy.[78]
It was attributed to him that he believed in the divinity of ‘Ali, al-Hasan, al-Husayn, Mohammed b. al-Hanafiya, and Abu Hashim. Among his fabrication is that he said: “Allah, the Exalted, will perish except his face.”[79] Then he was killed because of his fabrications.[80]

2. Hamza al-Barbari


Hamza b. ‘Ammara al-Barbari fabricated traditions and ascribed them to Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. So, the Imam, peace be on him, renounced him.
Hamza was an unbeliever. He said: “Whoever knows the Imam, let him do whatever he wants. For he does not commit a sin.”[81] He said that Mohammed b. al-Hanafiya was Allah, the Great and Almighty. So, Khalid b. ‘Abd Allah al-Qasri killed him.[82]

3. Al-Mughï~ra bin Sa‘ï~d


Al-Mughï~ra bin Sa‘ï~d al-Bajali al-Kufi created heresies and events in Islam. We will mention some of his affairs:

His Heresies


Al-Mughï~ra created heresies and abominable deeds. The following is some of them:
A. He believed in incarnation. He said: “Allah is in the shape of a man. There is a crown on His head. His parts are as equal as the alphabet. He has an abdomen. He has a heart full of wisdom.”[83] Then he classified the parts of Allah according to the alphabet.[84] Then he said: “When Allah wanted to create (the creatures), He talked with his name. So, He flew and fell on His crown. Then he wrote the deeds of the creatures with His own fingers. When He saw the sins, He oozed sweat. Two sees formed from His sweat. One was fresh the other was salty. He created the unbelievers from the salty sea and the believers from the fresh sea.”[85]
B. He was a juggler. Among his jugglery is that he went to the cemetery. He spoke and saw things like locusts on the graves.[86]
C. He was skillful in creating and inserting traditions in the books of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. He inserted excessiveness in the books of Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him.[87]
Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Sadiq said to his companions: “Do not accept the traditions reported on our authority except the traditions that agrees with the Koran and the Sunna. You must compare them with our previous traditions, for al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d has inserted fabricated traditions in the books of the companions of my father. Fear Allah. Do not accept the traditions that disagree with the words of our Lord and the Sunna of our Prophet.”
Hisham b. al-Hakam reported on the authority of Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, who said: “Al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d intentionally fabricated lies against my father. He took the books of the companions of my father. The companions of al-Mughï~ra concealed themselves among the companions of my father. They took the books and gave them to al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d. He inserted unbelief in them. Then he attributed them to my father. Then he gave them to his companions. Then he ordered them to spread the books among the Shï~‘a.”
The Shï~‘a were unable to bear al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d. So, Abu Hurayra al-‘Ajali hurried to Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him. He told him that the Shï~‘a were indignant with the fabrications and heresies of al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d.[88]

Imam al-Baqir renounced him


It was natural for Imam Abu Ja'far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, to renounce al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d. For the latter disbelieved in Allah. Moreover, he deviated from human qualities.
Kathï~r al-Nawa reported on the authority of Imam Abu Ja‘far al-Baqir, peace be on him, who said: “Allah and His Apostle renounced al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d, and Banan b. Sm‘an, for they fabricated lies against the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them.”[89]
Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Sadiq was so indignant with al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d that he said: “May Allah curse al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d. May Allah curse the Jewish woman with whom al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d sat. For he learned from her magic, jugglery, and false things. Al-Mughï~ra fabricated lies against my father, so Allah deprived him of faith. If some people fabricate lies against me, Allah will make them taste the heat of the iron. By Allah, we are mere servants. Allah created and chose us. We do neither harm nor benefit. If Allah has mercy on us, that is out of His mercy. If He tortures us, that is out of our sins. We will die. We will be buried. We will be raised from the dead and reckoned. May Allah curse them (the fabricators). They hurt Allah. They hurt Allah's Apostle in his grave. They hurt the Commander of the Faithful, Fatima, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. Now, they hurt me.”

The Revolt of al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d


Al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d announced his revolt in Kufa. Khalid b. ‘Abd Allah al-Qasri heard of that. So, he sent a phalanx to arrest al-Mughï~ra b. Sa‘ï~d.[90] Then he ordered him and his companions to be burnt.[91]

Unbelief and Polytheism


Unbelief and Polytheism appeared during the Umayyad time. Spiteful persons brought that to the Moslem countries to destroy them. The Umayyad government refrained from punishing unbelievers and polytheists. Hence, they spread among the Moslems. Accordingly, Imam Abu Ja‘far al-Baqir and his son Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on them, resisted unbelief and polytheism.
One day while Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, was sitting in the yard of the Kaba, a man came and questioned him:
- Did you see Allah when you worshipped Him?
- I do not worship the thing which I do not see.
- How did you see Him?
-No eyes see Him with the faculty of sight.
However, the hearts see Him through the
realities of belief. Allah cannot be known
through correspondence (i.e., He cannot be
known as material things are known through
sense), nor can He be perceived through the
senses, nor is He like any person. He is referred
to by His miraculous tokens and known
through His signs. There is no tyranny or
oppression in His dominion. Such is Allah.
There is no god except He.
Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, refuted the views of the man. The Imam, peace be on him, supported his answer with the bight dimensions of monotheism. The man was astonished with the words of the Imam, peace be on him. So, he said: “Allah knows very well where to place His message.”[92]
The talk about Allah's attributes, whether they are simple or compound, became widespread. Hence, Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, prevented (the Moslems) from discussing them.

Imam al-Baqir and a Syrian Scholar


Mohammed b. ‘Atiya narrated that a Syrian scholar came to Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, and said to him: “I have a question. I had asked the scholars about the question. However, they were unable to answer it.”
“What is it?” asked the Imam.
“My question is about the first thing Allah created. Some (people) answered me with self-determining. Some of them answered me with the pen. Some of them answered me with the spirit,” replied the Syrian scholar.
Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, explained: “The people did not reach the correct answer. I will tell you: Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, was and there was nothing other than him. He was Almighty, and no one was before His might. That is because of these words of Him, the Exalted: ‘Glory be to your Lord, the Lord of might, above what they describe.’
“The creator was before the creature. If the thing was created from the thing, that would never end. Therefore, Allah was eternal. There was nothing other than Him. Then He created water. Then He created all things from water.”
The Syrian scholar asked: “O Abu Ja‘far, what is the meaning of the words of Him, the Exalted: Do not those who disbelieve realize that the heavens and the earth were rataq and we made them fitq? what is rataq and this fitq? ”
“The earth was rataq (means) that no rain came down from it,” answered Abu Ja‘far, peace be on him, “and that the earth was fitq (means) that no plants came out of it.”
The Syrian scholar stopped. He could not find any opposition. So, Said: “I testify that you are one of the children of prophets, and your knowledge is theirs.”[93]
The historians said: “Jahm b. Safwan wanted to debate with some of the Samaniya[94] on some theological matters. They said to him: 'We will debate with you. If you defeat us, we will follow your religion. If we defeat you, you shall follow our religion.
(The Samaniya were the first to question):
- Do you not say that you have a God?
- Yes.
- Have you seen your God?
- No.
- Have you heard His words?
- No.
- Have you smelt Him?
- No.
- How do you know that you have God?
Jahm replied:
- Do you not say that you have spirit?
- Yes.
- Have you seen your spirit?
- No.
- Have you heard its words?
- No.
- Such is Allah. No one can see Him, hear His words, and smell him. The eyes cannot see him. He is not in a place other than a place.[95]
Besides, there were strong debates between the Moslems and the Christians at that time. Yohanna al-Dimashqi was the thinker of the Christians. He wrote a treatise to answer the Moslems. He was the friend of Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya. His son Sirgon was in charge of the financial affairs in Damascus.[96] 
However, the Umayyad government was indifferent to this ideological debates. So, may people tried to doubt Islamic ideological principles.

Violent Revolts


The Umayyads followed an oppressive policy against the Moslems. They persecuted them and deprived them of their material and spiritual rights. Hence, the Moslems led violent revolts against the Umayyad government to overthrow it.
The following is some revolts that occurred at the time of Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him:
The Revolt of Medina
Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya went too far in oppression and tyranny. He committed all grave sins. He violated the sacredness of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. For he killed al-Husayn, the prophet's grandson. Moreover, he ordered the rest of the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, to be taken as prisoners. That was at the tragedy of Karbala'.
In this connection, ‘Abd Allah b. Hanzala, a leader of the revolt, said: “By Allah, we revolted against Yazï~d because we were afraid that stones would be thrown at us from the sky. By Allah, if there had been some people with me, I would have fought against Yazï~d bravely to please Allah. For Yazï~d married mothers and their daughters. He drank wine and forgot to perform the prayers.”[97]
Al-Mundhir, a leader of the revolt, said: “Yazï~d gave me a hundred thousand (dinars). However, I will tell you about him: By Allah, he drinks wine. By Allah, he gets so intoxicated that he forgets to perform the prayers.”[98]
For these reasons, the people of Medina decided to break their pledge of allegiance to Yazï~d. Then, they dismissed their governor. They pursued the Umayyads.
Marwan b. al-Hakam thought that the people of Medina would attack his women. So, he hurried to ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar and asked him to protect his women from the revolutionists. However, the latter refused to accept that. Then he went to Imam Zayn al-‘Abidïn, peace be on him. The Imam, peace be on him, responded to him. He forgot the mistreatment of Marwan towards the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. He spent on the women of Marwan. Then Marwan fled Medina (Yathrib), for he was afraid of the revolutionists.[99]
Then the tyrannical ruler, Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya, sent a large army to occupy Medina (Yathrib). He entrusted the army to Moslem b. ‘Aqaba, who said: “By Allah, I will destroy (Medina.)”
Moslem b. ‘Aqaba advanced against Medina. After some bloody battles, he was able to occupy it. When his army entered Medina, it began killing the innocent people, the children, and the old men and women.
During those bloody battles, Medina lost eighty Companions of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. Thus, no one of those who participated at the Battle of Badr remained alive. Medina also lost seven hundred persons of Quraysh and of the Ansar (supporters). Moreover, it lost ten thousand persons of common people.[100]
Then Moslem b. ‘Aqaba ordered the people of Medina to pledge allegiance to Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya. He said to them: “You are the slaves of Yazï~d. He will behave with you however he wishes. Whoever refuses that, I will behead him.”[101]
The historians said: “Imam Zayn al-‘‘Abidïn hurried to the grave of his grandfather, Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, to seek protection with it. However, he was arrested and brought to Moslem b. ‘Aqaba. When Moslem b. ‘Aqaba saw the Imam, he shook all over out of the solemnity of the Imam.[102] He stood up for him. Then, he said to him: ‘Ask me for your needs.’ So, the Imam intercede with him for those who were sentenced to death. Moslem b. ‘Aqaba responded to the Imam. When the Imam left, Moslem was asked about his attitude towards him :‘You had abused this young man and his fathers. So, why did you honor him?' Because he filled my heart with fear,’ replied Moslem.”[103]

The Revolt of the Repentant


The Shi‘a of Kufa wrote many letters to Imam Husayn, the Lord of martyrs, peace be on him. In their letters, they pledged allegiance to him. They asked him to come to them. When the Imam came to them, they deserted him. Afterwards, the Shi‘a of Kufa repented of the sin they committed against the Imam. They thought that there would be no penance for their sin except the revolt against the Umayyad government, avenging the blood of Imam Husayn, peace be on him, and murdering the criminals who killed him.
The leader of the Repentant was Sulayman b. Sirt al-Khuza‘i. The Shi‘a elected him as a general leader for the revolt. The asked him to draw political and military plans and to exchange letters with the Shi‘a inside and outside Iraq.
The Repentant collected money and donations. Meanwhile, they kept their revolt secret. When Yazï~d b. Mu‘awiya had died, the Repentant announced their violent revolt. That was in the year 65 A.H. Their number was four hundred persons. Their motto was: “Let us avenge the blood of al-Husayn.”
This affective motto was used for the first time in Kufa. It shook the position of those who committed the most horrible crime in the history of mankind.
The Repentant headed for ‘Ayn al-Warda. Then the Syrians advanced against them. The two parties met. Violent battles took place between them. The Repentant showed extreme courage. Some of their leaders died martyrs at those battles.
Among them were Sulayman b. Sirt al-Khuza‘i, al-Musayyab b. Nujayya, ‘Abd Allah b. Sa‘d, and the like.
The Repentant were unable to fight against the Syrians. So, they withdrew from the battlefield and returned to Kufa at night. However, the Syrians did not pursue them.
With that the revolt of the Repentant ended. Though the Repentant were unable to overthrow the Umayyad government, they filled the hearts of the Umayyads with fear. Meanwhile, they gladdened the members of the house (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them.

The Revolt of al-Mukhtar


Al-Mukhtar was the most brilliant figure in Arab and Islamic history. He was the most prominent politician in drawing plans. He had much knowledge of psychology and mass media. Hence, he moved the feelings of the people and enlightened their intellect through sermons and poetry. Moreover, he made use of acting, demonstrations, and rumors.[104]
He was among the main figures of the Shi‘a. He was among the swords of the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. Some orientalists said: “Al-Mukhtar was loyal to movement. He supported his followers. He treated Arabs and non-Arabs with justice. Hence, Islam spread among non-Arabs.”[105] Wilhawzin doubted that al-Mukhtar wanted to avenge the blood of al-Husayn to hold the reins of government.[106]
The people accused al-Mukhtar of claiming prophecy, and the like. They accused him of that because he wanted to avenge the blood of Imam Husayn, peace be on him, to overthrow the Umayyad government, and to treat Arabs and non-Arabs with justice. He did his best to follow the policy of Imam Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, peace be on him, in economy and society.
Al-Mukhtar was pious. He conformed to the teachings of religion. The historians said: “During his short-term government, al-Mukhtar fasted very much to show thankfulness to Allah, the Exalted. For Allah granted him success to support the pure family (of the Prophet) and to destroy the Umayyads.”

Al-Mukhtar scared the Murderers


Al-Mukhtar terrified those who killed Imam Husayn, peace be on him. So, some of them escaped to ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan to protect them from al-Mukhtar.[107]
‘Abd al-Malik b. al-Hajjaj al-Taghlubi escaped to ‘Abd al-Malik and said to him: “I have escaped to you from Iraq.”
‘Abd al-Malik shouted at him, saying: “You are a liar. You have not escaped to us. However, you have escaped from the blood of al-Husayn. You have feared for your blood. So, you have sought protection with us.[108]
Some of the murderers escaped to b. al-Zubayr and joined his army. For they were afraid of al-Mukhtar.
However, al-Mukhtar spread scare and terror in the houses of those who killed Imam Husayn, peace be on him. He filled the hearts of the murderers with terror. Among those who were afraid of al-Mukhtar was Asma' b. Kharija, one of those who killed Imam Husayn, peace be on him.
Al-Mukhtar said: “A black fire will come down from the sky. The fire will burn the house of Asma'.” When the latter heard the words of the former, he fled Kufa.

Al-Mukhtar killed the Murderers


Al-Mukhtar executed quickly those who participated in murdering the Lord of the youth of Heaven, Imam Husayn, peace be on him. He killed the wicked criminal, b. Marjana. He also killed ‘Umar b. Sa‘d and his son Hafs. Then, he sent their heads to Medina (Yathrib) as a gift to the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. Hence, the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, became glad. Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Sadiq, peace be on him, reported their rejoicing, saying: “No Hashimite woman combed her hair till al-Mukhtar sent us the heads of those who killed al-Husayn.”[109] Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, praised and lauded al-Mukhtar. Addressing al-Hakam b. al-Mukhtar, the Imam said: “May Allah have mercy on your father. He took our right from all the people.”
Al-Mukhtar sent Imam Zayn al-‘Abidïn twenty-thousand dinars. The Imam accepted it and rebuilt the houses of the Banu ‘Aqï~l, which the Umayyads demolished.[110]

The Revolt of Ibn al-Zubayr


As for b. al-Zubayr, he did not intend to make happy the community and to achieve its interests. Rather, he wanted the family of al-Zubayr to take the reins of government. However, the family of al-Zubayr thought of nothing except their interests. The proof for that is what ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar said to his wife when she asked him to pledge allegiance to b. al-Zubayr. He said to her: “Have you not seen the mules which Mu‘awiya used to make the pilgrimage (to Mecca)? Surely, b. al-Zubayr wants nothing except them.”[111]
Indeed b. al-Zubayr wanted nothing except holding the reins of authority. Through his revolt, he did not want to please Allah or to achieve the interests of the community. To take the reins of government, he used all means such as showing asceticism and worship. He did that to deceive the simple people. Concerning him Imam ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, peace be on him, said: “He installed the snare of religion to choose the world.”[112] Now, we will mention some qualities of b. al-Zubayr:

His Miserliness


The most prominent quality of b. al-Zubayr was miserliness. This quality was the most important reason for the overthrowing of his government.
The historians reported many examples of his miserliness. Among them is that the poet ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr al-Asadi came to him and asked him for some money. He said to him: “O Commander of the Faithful, there is blood relation between you and me.” ‘Abd Allah thought that b. al-Zubayr would feel pity for him and bestow upon him. Thus, b. al-Zubayr replied: “Yes, you are right. However, if you think of such a relation, then all the people belong to one father and one mother.”
When ‘Abd Allah al-Asadi understood that this way was useless, he said to b. al-Zubayr: “O Commander of the Faithful, I have used up my money.”
Bin al-Zubayr did not feel shame of ‘Abd Allah. So, he said to him: “That does not concern me.”
‘Abd Allah al-Asadi went on begging b. al-Zubayr, saying: “O Commander of the Faithful, my she-camel has become tired.”
However, b. al-Zubayr scolded him, and then he said to him: “Take your she-camel and go back to your homeland, Najd.”
‘Abd Allah al-Asadi was unable to bear the words of b. al-Zubayr. Hence, he said to him: “O Commander of the Faithful, I have unwillingly come to you. May Allah curse the she-camel that has brought me to you.”
Ibn al-Zubayr shouted at him, saying: “May Allah curse its rider, too.”
Then ‘Abd Allah al-Asadi went out, saying:
I see that the needs are troubles with Abu Khabï~b.[113]
(He) is from al-A‘yas[114] or from the family of Harb.
(He) has a blaze as the horse has.
I said to my companions: Bring me my she-camel to leave Mecca at night.
However, I came at Dhati ‘Rqin[115] to b. al-Kahiliya[116], who is from Ma‘ad.[117]
Ibn al-Zubayr said: “My abdomen is a span of the hand. A little thing of the world is enough for it.”[118] These words of him made the people mock him.
Ibn al-Zubayr was very miserly. It was said that he gave the poor from the public treasury. Yet, he felt that he gave them from the money of his father.[119] His miserliness made him lose his battle with ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan.[120]

His Enmity towards the ‘Alï~ds


The soul of b. al-Zubayr was full of hatred and detest towards the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. He harbored malice against them to the extent that he did not bless the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, in his sermon. He was asked about that, and he said: “He (the Prophet) has an evil family. They become happy and raise their heads when they hear his name.”[121]
Ibn al-Zubayr did his best to hurt the family of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. He forgot that the Prophet's family was the source of awareness and culture of this community. He forgot that the great Prophet did his people many favors. It was the Prophet who saved b. al-Zubayr's people from the poor desert life. It was he who built glory and government for them. Moreover, it was he who made them the lords of peoples and nations.
Ibn al-Zubayr ordered the ‘Alï~ds to pledge allegiance to him. However, they refused that. They said to him: “We will not pledge allegiance to you till the community gathers.” So, he ordered his men to arrest them. Hence, his men arrested the ‘Alï~ds at Zamzam. Then, b. al-Zubayr said to them: “If you do not pledge allegiance to me, I will kill and burn you.” He appointed time for that.
Ibn al-Hanafiya asked his followers to write to al-Mukhtar, the governor of Kufa, to help them. He wrote to him and told him that b. al-Zubayr would punish them severely.
Immediately, al-Mukhtar responded to them. He appointed Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Jadali over a military phalanx. The members of the phalanx hurried to Mecca. They entered it. They raised banners and shouted: “Let us avenge the blood of al-Husayn.” They arrived at the Sacred Mosque.
Ibn al-Zubayr had ordered wood to be put at the door of the prison. He had ordered the wood to be burnt when the appointed time would end. Only two days of the appointed time remained.
Then the members of the military phalanx could break the door of the prison and released the Hashimites. They asked b. al-Hanafiya to permit them to fight against b. al-Zubayr. However, b. al-Hanafiya refused to accept that. Then, he said to them: “I cannot violate the sacredness of the Sacred Mosque.” Moreover, he prevented them from attacking b. al-Zubayr.[122] In addition to that, he treated b. al-Zubayr well.
Concerning the release of b. al-Hanafiya from the prison of b. al-Zubayr, the poet Kuthayr b. ‘Abd al-Rahman said:
Whoever sees this Shaykh (b. al-Hanafiya) in
prison at Mina knows that he is just.[123]
Ibn al-Zubayr was the mortal enemy of the family of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. He intended to destroy them all. However, Allah, the Exalted, destroyed his government.

The Failure of his Revolt


It was natural for the revolt of b. al-Zubayr to fail. ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan mentioned the reasons for the failure of b. al-Zubayar's revolt, saying: “Ibn al-Zubayr was miserly, stubborn, and self-conceited.”[124]
However, the Umayyad armies, headed by al-Hajjaj b. Yousif al-Thaqafi, attacked b. al-Zubayr. The latter sought protection with the Sacred House of Allah. He asked them to grant him security over his life. However, the Umayyad armies paid no attention to the sacredness of the House. For the attacked it with fire.
Ibn al-Zubayr was unable to resist the Umayyad armies. Hence, most of his companions asked al-Hajjaj to grant them security over their lives. Al-Hajjaj did that. Thus, ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr and few of his companions remained fighting against the Umayyad armies.[125]
Some historians said: “Ibn al-Zubayr was sure of his close death. He was unable to defend himself. So, he began eating musk for days. He knew that al-Hajjaj would kill him. Hence, he wanted the musk to come out of his body. Then, al-Hajjaj arrested and killed him. The musk came out of his body. Al-Hajjaj smelt it. So, he ordered a cat or a dog to be killed beside him. For he wanted conceal the musk that came out of the body of b. al-Zubayr.”
The corpse of b. al-Zubayr remained in the open air. For al-Hajjaj did not ordered it to be buried. Then, ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan ordered it to be buried.

Economic Life


As for the economic life at the time of Imam al-Baqir, peace be on him, it was paralyzed and disorderly. For the wealth of the community was confined to the members of government and their hirelings. They spent it generously on their desires and pleasures. Meanwhile, they deprived the community of it. So, they made the community lead a poor life. The prices were so high that the people were unable to buy their necessary needs such as food and clothes. The poets described this poor life in their poems. Among them were al-Asadi[126] and al-Numayri.[127]
In his poem al-Numayri described the oppressive governors who did their best to persecute the community.[128]
However, the Umayyad kings did not punish their governors for their oppression and tyranny towards the subjects. Rather, they let them behave freely. This led to discords and disorderly political situations. Accordingly, the people in Khurasan revolted against the Umayyads and overthrew their government.
As for Imam Abu Ja‘far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, he witnessed all the sufferings of the people. He felt pity for them, for he was their spiritual leader. However, he was unable to change their miserable economic life.

[1] W‘az al-Salatin, p.293.
[2] Hayat al-Imam Musa bin Ja‘far, vol.2, p.182.
[3] Hayat al-Imam  al-Hasan, vol.2, p.357.
[4] Mizan al-I‘tidal, vol.4, p.160.
[5] Hayat al-Imam  al-Hasan, vol.2, p.356.
[6] Tarikh Baghdad, vol.12, p.351.
[7] Ibid, vol.6, p.127.
[8] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.7, p.319.
[9] Al-Mufid, Sharh ‘Aqa’id al-Saduq, p.66.
[10] Wasa’il al-Shi‘a.
[11] Talkhis al-Shafi, vol.1, p.59.
[12] Firaq al-Shi‘a, p.84.
[13] Abi al-Fida’, Tarikh.
[14] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.4, p.87.
[15] Ibid, pp.85-87.
[16] Ibid.
[17] Ibid.
[18] Ibid.
[19] Mu‘jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol.8, p.140.
[20] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.4, p.84.
[21] A‘lam al-Muwaqqi‘in, vol.1, p.18.
[22] Al-Aghani, vol.3, p.93.
[23] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.4, p.86.
[24] Ibid,vol.7, p.182.
[25] Ibid.
[26] Shadharat al-Dhahab, vol.1, p.104.
[27] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.7, p.183.
[28] Ibid, p.184.
[29] Ibid, p.23.
[30] Al-Aghani, vol.8, p.16.
[31] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.7, p.24.
[32] Ibid, vol.6, p.155.
[33] Ibid, vol.4, p.229.
[34] Ibid, vol.8, p.334.
[35] Mu‘jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol.14, p.48.
[36] Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol.8, p.335.
[37] Ta’sis al-Shi‘a li ‘Ulum al-Islam.
[38] Murujj al-Dhahab, vol.2, p.196.
[39] Ibid, p.197.
[40] Ibid.
[41] Ibid, p.73
[42] Al-Aghani, vol.15, pp.59-63.
[43] Ibid, vol.11, p.271.
[44] Ibid, vol.15, pp.59-63.
[45] Ibn Qays al-Ruqayyat, Diwan, p.176.
[46] Al-Aghani, vol.5, p.78.
[47] Al-Tirimmah, Diwan, p.157.
[48] Hayat al-Imam Musa bin Ja‘far, vol.1, pp.319-320.
[49] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.5, p.105.
[50] Al-‘Aqd al-Farid, vol.1, p.105.
[51] Al-Aghani, vol.1, p.310.
[52] Ibid, vol.17, p.89.
[53] Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat, vol.5, p.246.
[54] Al-Aghani, vol.9, p.262.
[55] Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat, vol.8, p.352.
[56] Al-Aghani, vol.6, p.13.
[57] Ibid, vol.10, p.60.
[58] Ibid.
[59] Ibid.
[60] Ibid, p.57.
[61] Ibid, vol.3, p.276.
[62] Ibid, vol.4, p.222.
[63] Ibid, vol.6, p.21.
[64] Ibid, vol.5, p.109.
[65] Ibid, p.161.
[66] Ibid, vol.3, p.307.
[67] Al-Nahjj, vol.3, p.16.
[68] Al-Nasai’h al-Kafiya, p.74.
[69] Ibn Abi al-Haddid, Sharh Nahjj al-Balagha, vol.4, p.63.
[70] Salim bin Qays, p.45.
[71] Nazra ‘Amma fi Tarikh al-Fiqh al-Islami, p.128.
[72] Moslem, Sahih, Kitab al-Sayd.
[73] Nazra ‘Amma fi Tarikh al-Fiqh al-Islami, p.129.
[74] Ibn al-Bazzaz, Manaqib al-Imam Abi Hanifa, vol.1, p.31.
[75] Lisan al-Mizan, vol.2, p.69.
[76] Al-Kashi, Rijal, p.223.
[77] Mu‘jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol.3, p.364.
[78] Firaq al-Shi‘a, p.31.
[79] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.231.
[80] Firaq al-Shi‘a, p.31.
[81] Ibid, p.25.
[82] Ibid.
[83] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.230.
[84] Al-Hur al-‘In, p.168.
[85] Mizan al-I‘tidal, vol.4, p.162.
[86] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.230.
[87] Al-Kashi, Rijal, p.224.
[88] Ibn Qutayba, ‘Uyyun al-Akhbar, vol.2, p.151.
[89] Lisan al-Mizan, vol.6, p.76.
[90] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.230.
[91] Ibid.
[92] Tarikh Dimashq, vol.51, p.45. Zahr al-Adab, vol.1, p.116.
[93] Bihar al-Anwar.
[94] A tribe from India. It believes in reincarnation.
[95] Ibn Hanbal, al-Radd ‘ala al-Jahamiya wa al-Zandaqa, p.11.
[96] Al-Firaq al-Islamiya fi al-‘Asr al-Umawi, p.286.
[97] Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat.
[98] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol.4, p.368.
[99] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.3, p.311.
[100] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol.7, pp.5-12.
[101] Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol.2, p.232.
[102] In ‘Uyyun al-Akhbar wa Funun al-Athar (p.166), it was mentioned that Marwan b. al-Hakam was sitting beside Moslem b. ‘Aqaba. He heard him cursing Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin. So, he invoked him to kill the Imam. Thus, he forgot the Imam’s favors.
[103] Murujj al-Dhahab, vol.3, p.18.
[104] Al-Mukhtar, p.43.
[105] Da’irat al-Ma’arif al-Islamiya, vol.3, p.237.
[106] Al-Khawarijj wa al-Shi‘a, p.237.
[107] Hayat al-Imam al-Husayn, vol.3, p.455.
[108] Ibn Qutayba, ‘Uyyun al-Akhbar, vol.1, p.103.
[109] Al-Kashi, Rijal.
[110] Safinat al-Bihar, vol.1, p.435.
[111] Hayat al-Imam al-Husayn, vol.2, p.310.
[112] Sharh Nahjj al-Balagha, vol.7, p.24.
[113] Abu Khabib was the kunya of ‘Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr.
[114] Al-A‘yas were the sons of Umayya b. ‘Abd Shams.
[115] Dhati ‘Irqin was one of the times of the hajj.
   It was the time of the Iraqis.
[116] Ibn al-Kahiliya was b. al-Zubayr. The poet gibed him with that.
[117] Al-Siyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa’, p.213.
[118] Al-Agani, vol.1, p.22.
[119] Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol.3, p.9.
[120] Al-Fakhri, p.105.
[121] Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol.3, p.8.
[122] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, pp.374-375.
[123] Al-Aghani, vol.8, p.31.
[124] Ibid.
[125] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol.4, p.29.
[126] Al-Jahiz, Hayat al-Hayawan, vol.5, p.297-298.
[127] He was an oppressive governor.
[128] Hayat al-Imam Musa bin Ja‘far, vol.1, p.304.

INDEX