fee fawaaid ad-duaa lil qaaim

on the benefits of praying for al-Qaim

Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Musawi Isfahani

Translated by:
Sayyid Athar Husain S.H. Rizvi  

Isfahani, Muhammad Taqi, 1883-1929.
Mikyal al-Makarim fee fawaaid ad-duaa lil Qaaim; Citerion of Nobilities on the benefits of Prayin for al-Qaim/Muhammad Taqi Isfahani; Translated by Athar Husain S.H. Rizvi.- Qum: Ansariyan, 2009=1388.
856 P.
ISBN: 978-964-219-091-1
فهرستنويسي بر اساس اطلاعات فيپا.
1. مهدويت -- انتظار.           2. دعاها.           الف. رضويRizvi ، اطهر حسين Athar Hussain،           مترجم.
 ب. عنوان.
297/462 704952م6الف/224BP
شماره كتابشناسي ملي: 1842633 1388

مكيال المكارم في فوائد الدعاء للقائم باللّغة الانجليزية
Criterion of Nobilities on the benefits of Praying for al-Qaim

Author: Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Musawi Isfahani
Translator: Athar Husain S.H. Rizvi
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications
First Edition: 2009 - 1430 - 1388
Ufuq Press
Quantity: 2000
No. of pages: 856 P.
Size: 162 x 229 mm
ISBN: 978-964-219-091-1

Ansariyan Publications
P.O. Box 187
22, Shohada Str. – Qum
Islamic Republic of Iran
Tel: 0098 251 7741744 Fax 7742647
Email: ansarian@noornet.net & ansarian@yahoo.com
www.ansariyan.org & www.ansariyan.net



Translators Foreword 18
About the Author 19
Author’s Preface 20
Reason for Writing this book 21

Part one

Essentiality of Recognizing the Imam of the Time 23
Rational Proof 23
Textual Proof 25

Part Two

Proofs of the Imamate of Hujjat bin al-Hasan al-Askari 34

Section One

Some Mutawatir Traditions Particularly Prove Imamate 41

Section Two

Miracles and faith healings of the Master of Age 44

Part Three

Some rights and favors of His Eminence on us 46
Existence and being 46
Right of survival in the world 49
Right based on relationship to the Holy Prophet 50
The right of the bestower of favor and the medium of favor 51
The right of the father upon his son 52
The Right of the Master over his servants and protégés 53
Right of the teacher on the pupil 54
Right of the Imam on the followers 54

Part Four

Qualities and special merits of Imam-e-Zamana that necessitate praying for him 55

The Letter Alif

Eimaan (Faith) in God 55
Amr bil Ma’roof (Enjoining Good) 56
Ijaabat (Fulfillment) of our prayers through his blessings 56
Ihsaan (Favor) upon us 57
Making lawful the rights that have come to us from Him 57
Seeking the Help of His Eminence 57
Helping the oppressed ones of us, Shias 57
Security of the roads and cities by his reappearance 59
Enlivening the Religion of God and Exalting the word of Allah 60
Revenge of His Eminence from the Enemies of God 60
Establishment and Application of Divine penalties 62
Distress and helplessness of His Eminence 63

The Letter Ba (B)

Bakhshish (Generosity) of His Eminence 64
Establishing the Proof and Guidance 64
Tribulations of His Eminence (Trials and Afflictions) 64
Blessings of His Eminence 64

The Letter Ta (T)

Uniting People 64
The Mercy and Favors of His Eminence with regard to us 65
Bearing pain at our hands 66
Abandoning his own right for us 66
Attending the funeral of our dead 66
Rebuilding the foundations of Islam after its ruin and destruction 68
Completion of the matter by His Eminence 70
Quranic Teachings collected by Amirul Momineen 70

The Letter Tha (Th)

Thawaab (reward) of good deeds and their acceptance is subject to the Wilayat of His Eminence 74
Revenger of the blood of Husain and the martyrs of Kerbala 74

The Letter Jeem (J)

Jamaal (Elegance) and beauty of His Eminence 77
The flow of our sustenance at the hands of His Eminence 80
Jihad of His Eminence 80
Uniting the word on Monotheism and Islam 82
Coming together of helpers of religion from the angels, Jinn and all believers 83
The coming together of the intellects 86

The Letter H’a (H’)

His Eminence’s help (H’imayat) to Islam 87
H’arb (War) with opponents 88
Hajj of His Eminence 90
Survival and Life of the Earth due to the presence of Him 90
Forbearance of His Eminence 91
Revival (from dead) of some divine saints for his reappearance 91
Love and Regard of His Eminence for us 91
His Eminence will Judge with Truth 92
The Judgment of His Eminence from Unseen 93

The Letter Kha (Kh)

Khulq (Manners) of His Eminence 94
Khauf (Fear) of His Eminence 95
Khilafat (Caliphate) of His Eminence over the Muslims 97
Perfection of the Sciences for him 97
Rising up of Him with the sword after his reappearance 98

The Letter Daal (D)

Dua (Supplication) of His Eminence for the Believers 99
Dawat (Call) of His Eminence to truth 102
Calamities are warded off from us due to his blessings 103
Warding off the Calamities and Chastisement from the people through the blessings of the Shias of His Eminence 105

The Letter Dhaal (Dh)

Dhabba (warding off) the enemies from the believers during the occultation and reappearance of His Eminence 106
Disgrace of the enemies at the hands of His Eminence after the Reappearance 106

The Letter Ra (R)

Rabat (Vigil) 107
Rahat (Comfort) for the Creatures by the Reappearance and Government of His Eminence 107

The Letter Za (Z)

Zahmat (Struggle) of His Eminence on the path of faith 108
Zuhd (piety) of His Eminence 108
Ziarat of His Eminence at the tomb of Abi Abdullah al-Husain and other Infallibles 109

The Letter Seen (s)

Sirah (Behavior) and Manners of His Eminence 110
Sakhaawat (Charity) of His Eminence 110

The Letter Sheen (Sh)

Shuja-at (Valor) of His Eminence 112
Shafa-at (Intercession) of him for us – if Allah wills 112
Shahadat (Testimony) of His Eminence for us 113
Sharaafat – Nobility of His Eminence 113

The Letter S’aad (S’)

S’abr of His Eminence 114

The Letter Z”aad (Z”)

Z”iyafat (Hospitability) of His Eminence 114

The Letter T’a (T’)

T’ahaarat (Purification) of the earth from injustice through His Eminence 115
T’alab-e-Huqooq (Recovery of the rights) of the Imams and believers and T’alab-e-Khoon (Revenging their blood) 115

The Letter Z’a (Z’)

Z’uhoor (Appearance) of truth at the hands of His Eminence 115
Z’afar– Victory and Success of him over his opponents 115
Z’ulm – Injustice of the Enemies upon His Eminence 116
Appearance of the perfections of the Imams and their manners and morals by the instance of the reappearance of His Eminence 118

The Letter A’in (A’)

I’lm (knowledge) of His Eminence 119
I’zzat – Respect of the Saints by the Reappearance of His Eminence 120
A’dhaab – Punishment of the enemies 120
A’dl – Justice of His Eminence 121
A’t’f – The Turning of Selfish Desires to Guidance 122
A’t’aa (Benevolence) and bestowals of His Eminence 122
A’zlat – Seclusion and self imposed isolation of His Eminence from the people 124
I’baadat – Worship of His Eminence 124

The Letter Ghain (Gh)

Ghaibat (Occultation) of His Eminence 125
Remoteness of His Eminence from his Native Place 139
Ghalba (Domination) and victory of Muslims by the reappearance of His Eminence 140
Ghina (Self-sufficiency) and Needlessness of the believers due to the blessings of His Eminence 141

The Letter Fa (F)

Fadl (grace) and generosity of His Eminence with regard to us 141
 Fasl (distance) and separation of Him between truth and falsehood 141
Faraj – Success of believers through His Eminence 142
Fath (Conquest) of the cities and countries of the Infidels 144
Fath (Opening) of the red scroll for taking revenge for the Imams 145
Farah (Joy) of the believers at his reappearance and advent 145

The Letter Qaaf (Q)

Qatl (Elimination) of the Infidels by the Sword of His Eminence 145
Qatl (Slaying) of the Satan 148
Quwwat (Strengthening) of the bodies and hearts of the believers during the time of reappearance 148
Qaza-e-Dain-e-Momineen – Repaying the debts of the believers 149
Qaza-e-Hawaij – Fulfilling the needs of the Believers 150
Qazawat – Judgment of His Eminence with Truth 153
Qurbat – Relationship of His Eminence to the Prophet 154
Qist – Equity of His Eminence 154
Qatl – Elimination of Dajjal –the chief of the misguided – at the hands of His Eminence 158

The Letter Kaaf (K)

Kamalaat (Perfections) of His Eminence 166
Resemblance of His Eminence to the Prophets 168
Resemblance to Adam 168
Resemblance to Habeel 169
Resemblance to Sheeth 170
Resemblance to Nuh 171
Resemblance to Idrees 172
Resemblance to Hud 174
Resemblance to Salih 175
Resemblance to Ibrahim 176
Resemblance to Ismail 180
Resemblance to Ishaq 183
Resemblance to Lut 184
Resemblance to Yaqoob 184
Resemblance to Yusuf 185
Resemblance to Khizr 186
Resemblance to Ilyas 191
Resemblance to Dhulqarnain 194
Resemblance to Prophet Shuaib 196
Resemblance to Moosa 197
Reminder 202
Resemblance to Haroon 206
Resemblance to Yusha 207
Resemblance to Hizqil 208
Resemblance to Dawood 210
Resemblance to Sulaiman 212
Resemblance to Asif 213
Resemblance to Daniyal 214
Resemblance to Uzair 214
Resemblance to Jirjees 214
Resemblance to Ayyub 214
Resemblance to Yunus 215
Resemblance to Zakariya 216
Resemblance to Yahya 216
Resemblance to Isa 216
Resemblance to the Seal of the Prophets 222
Resemblance to the Infallible Imams, Allah’s blessings be on them 222
Resemblance to Imam Husain 225

The Letter Kaaf (K)

Karam (Munificence) of His Eminence 228
Expounding the Sciences for the people 229
Clearing and Removing hardships from the believers 231

The Letter Laam (L)

Liwa (Flag) of His Eminence 233

The Letter Meem (M)

Marabata (Vigil) of His Eminence in the path of God 235
Miracles of His Eminence 237
Mehnat (Hardships) of His Eminence 237
Masaib (Calamities) of His Eminence 238
Mohabbat Mutaqaabil (Reciprocal Love) of him and the believers 238

The Letter Noon (N)

Naf’ (Benefit) of His Eminence 238
Noor (Effulgence) of His Eminence 242
Meaning of Noor (Effulgence) 243
Luminosity is the sign of nobility 244
Regarding the Concept that the Being of His Eminence is Noor 246
The illuminations of his Noor at the beginning of the reappearance, during occultation and presence 250
Brilliance of the effulgence of His Eminence in the world 252
Bounties of His Eminence 261
Help of Islam, Forbidding Evil and Enjoining Good by His Eminence 266
Nida (Call) of His Eminence 268
Advice of His Eminence about Allah, the Messenger and the Believers 277

The Letter Waw (W)

Wilayat (Mastership) of His Eminence 277
Joining His Eminence 282

The Letter Ha (H)

Hamm (Sorrow) of His Eminence 283
Hadam (Destroying) the lairs of infidelity, evil and hypocrisy 283
Hidayat (Guiding) the People 285
Hijran (Migrants) of His Eminence 286

The Letter Yaa (Y)

Yad (Bounty) of His Eminence upon us 286
Yumn (Auspiciousness) of His Eminence 287

Part Five

Good Consequences of Praying for Deliverance 289
Tawqee of His Eminence 296
Increase in Bounties 298
The being of His Eminence is a bounty 298
Thankfulness of bounty is obligatory 300
Thankfulness of bounty is source of its increase 300
Meaning of thankfulness 300
Types of thankfulness – praying is a type of thankfulness 301
Expression of inner love 304
A sign of anticipation (awaiting) 306
Revival of the command of the Purified Imams 306
Distress and fear of the Satan 307
Deliverance from the mischiefs of the last age and remaining safe from Satanic traps 311
Part-fulfillment of the rights of His Eminence upon us 312
Honoring Allah, His religion and His Messenger 315
Prayer of the Master of the Time for those who supplicate for his early reappearance 317
Becoming eligible for the intercession of His Eminence on Judgment Day 318
Meaning of intercession 319
Proofs of intercession 319
Intercessors on Judgment Day 321
Who is eligible for intercession? 323
Some benefits 330
 Praying for an early reappearance is a cause of eligibility 332
Eligibility for intercession of the Holy Prophet and attaining the great intercession 334
A means to Allah, the Mighty and the High 335
Acceptance of prayers 338
Recompensing favor of prophethood of the Holy Prophet 344
Warding off calamities and increase in sustenance 351
Forgiveness of sins 352
Becoming eligible to meet His Eminence in person or in sleep 353
Reminder and encouragement 353
Return (Raja’t) to the world during the time of reappearance 354
Brotherhood of the Holy Prophet 355
Hastening of the matter of the reappearance of the Master of the Time 361
Children recompensed for the deeds of parents 361
Bada 363
Reappearance can be advanced or delayed 370
Following the Prophet and the Holy Imam 370
Explanation 371
Fulfillment of Divine Covenant 372
Those who pray would gain the rewards of doing goodness to the parents 374
Safe keeping trust and returning it honestly 374
Regarding the meaning of protected trust 375
Conclusion 384
Regarding the obligatory nature of protecting the trusts 384
How the divine trust is cared for 385
Praying for an early reappearance is among the forms of caring 385
Spread of the effulgence of His Eminence in the supplicant’s heart 385
Increase in lifespan 387
Goodness to Relatives causes increase in lifespan 389
Being good to the Holy Prophet and his family is most emphasized. 390
Praying is a form of doing good and a sort of favor 393
Cooperation in good deeds 394
Help of Allah, the Mighty and the High 394
Guidance by the effulgence of the Holy Quran 396
Recognized by the people of the heights (Araaf) 397
Reward of seeking knowledge 398
Security from Punishment of the Hereafter 398
Glad tidings and moderateness at time of death 402
Response to the call of Allah and His Messenger 405
In the same level as that of Amirul Momineen 406
Best people in the view of Almighty Allah 407
Most respected persons in view of the Holy Prophet 408
He will enter Paradise at the recommendation of the Messenger 408
The prayer of the Holy Prophet would be there in his favor 409
Forgiveness of sins and replacement of sins with good deeds 409
Almighty Allah helps in worship 410
Removal of Divine Chastisement from the people 410
Rewards of helping and supporting the oppressed 411
Reward of honoring and respecting one who is higher in status 413
Rewards and benefits of paying respect 413
Glorifying Allah, the Mighty and the High 413
Security from fear on the Judgment Day 414
Proximity to the court of Allah 415
Fulfillment of a part of the rights 415
Earning Love 415
Elevated status in the court of the Almighty Allah 415
Meaning of Humility 417
Types of Humility 419
Reward of avenging the blood of Imam Husain 426
Brightness of his light on Judgment Day 444
His intercession for seventy thousand sinners 446
Prayer of Amirul Momineen 446
Enter Paradise without accounting 446
Safe from the thirst of Judgment Day 447
Forever in Paradise 447
Scratching the face of Satan 447
A special gift on the Judgment Day 448
Servants of Paradise 448
Vast shade of the Almighty Allah 448
Reward of a believer’s Well-wisher 449
In the presence of the Angels 451
Allah prides 453
Angels seek forgiveness 453
The best people after the Imams 453
Obedience of the Ulil Amr (those in authority) 454
Ulil Amr are the Holy Imams 454
Obligatory to obey the Ulil Amr 455
The best thing through which people can seek proximity to Allah 455
Praying for an early reappearance is also implied in their obedience 456
Pleasure of the Almighty Allah 456
Source of happiness of the Holy Prophet 456
The Favorite Deed 457
Rulership of Paradise 457
His accounting will be easy 457
A Kind Companion in Barzakh and Qiyamat 457
The best deeds 458
Cause of removal of sorrow 458
Praying in the period of occultation better than in reappearance 459
Angels pray for him 460
Dua of His Eminence Sajjad for the Supplicants 461
Attachment to the Two Weighty Things (Thaqlayn) 464
Clinging to the Divine Rope 465
Perfection of Faith 465
Reward of worshippers 466
Respecting the Divine Signs 467
Reward of one who is martyred in the company of the Messenger 467
Reward of being martyred under the flag of His Eminence, Qaim 467
Reward of doing a favor to our master, the Master of the Time (aj) 468
Reward of honoring and fulfillment of rights 468
Reward of honoring a great personality 469
Inclusion in the party of the Imams 469
Elevation of ranks in Paradise 469
Security from a bad accounting 470
Getting the highest stations of martyrs 472
Getting the intercession of Lady Fatima 473
Twelve conclusions 473
Reward of performing Hajj of the House of Allah 473
Reward of Umrah 474
Reward of Etekaf of two months in Masjidul Haraam 474
Reward of fasting for two months 474
Acceptance of his intercession in Qiyamat 474
Fulfillment of a hundred thousand wishes in Qiyamat 474
Reward of seventy circumambulations of Kaaba 474
Reward of emancipating a slave 475
Reward of sending a thousand saddled and bridled horses for God’s sake 475
Support of 75000 angels 475
Reward of Serving the Lord for a thousand years 476
Reward of 9000 years of fasting and praying 476
Some Reminders 476

Part Six

Times and conditions emphasized for supplicating 477
After every Obligatory Prayer 477
After Zuhr Prayer 483
After Asr Prayer 486
After Morning Prayer 488
After every two units of the Night Prayer 488
In Qunoot of Prayers 489
In Prostration (Sajdah) 505
In thanksgiving Prostration (Sajdah Shukr) 506
Every morning and evening 506
In the last part of every day 508
Thursday 510
Friday Eve 510
Friday 511
Navroz Day 515
Day of Arafah 515
Eid-ul-Fitr 515
Eid-ul-Azha 516
Dahwul Arz Day - Day of Earth’s Expansion 517
Ashura Day 518
Eve of 15th Shaban 518
Day of 15th Shaban 519
Whole month of Ramadan 519
Eve of the 6th of the month of Ramadan 522
8th day of the month of Ramadan 523
Eve of the 12th of the month of Ramadan 524
Day of the 13th of the month of Ramadan 524
Day of 18th and eve of the 19th of the month of Ramadan 525
21st of the month of Ramadan 526
After remembering the tragedy of Imam Husain 528
After reciting the ziyaarat of Imam Zamana (aj) 528
While weeping due to the Fear of Allah 529
After renewing of every blessing and passing away of every calamity 529
At the time of sorrow and grief 529
In hardships and difficulties 530
After the Prayer of Tasbih 530
Before praying for oneself and ones family 530
Day of Ghadeer 530
All possible times of the day and night 532
In the gathering of opponents and usurpers of the rights of the Imams 532
To pray for forty consecutive days for the reappearance of the Imam 533
Month of Muharram 533
Places Emphasized for Supplicating for Imam Zamana (aj) 534
Masjidul Haraam 534
Arafat 534
The Cellar (Sardaab) 534
Places associated with the Twelfth Imam 535
Mausoleum of Imam Husain 535
Mausoleum of Imam Reza 536
Mausoleum of Imam Ali Naqi and Imam Hasan Askari 536
Mausoleum of every Imam 536

Part Seven

Value of praying for the hastening of the reappearance of the Imam 537
Some points discussed 537
Value of praying for the reappearance of the Imam openly or secretly 548
Some supplications related from the Holy Imams about this 550
Dua Salawat 550
Dua Imam Reza 555
Dua in the period of Occultation 564
Dua Qunoot 570
Dua Nudbah 581
Another Dua 593

Part Eight

Duties of people towards the Imam 596
To obtain knowledge about the special characteristics of Imam 596
To be respectful while mentioning him 600
Loving Him 620
Making him Popular among the People 623
Awaiting his Reappearance 624
Excellence of awaiting and the reward of the awaiter 624
Awaiting for the reappearance of Imam Mahdi is obligatory for all 631
The Real Meaning of Intezar 633
Intention of seeking Allah’s nearness 633
Intezar is the opposite of despair or hopelessness 636
Expressing an eagerness to see him 640
Relating the Praiseworthy Qualities of Imam 642
Grief of a Believer due to Imam’s Separation 643
Being Present in Assemblies where merits of Imam are Discussed 644
To organize gatherings where Fadail of Imam shall be discussed 646
Composing and Reciting poems in Imam’s Praise 647
To Stand up with Respect at the Mention of Imam’s name 647
Weeping for Imam’s separation 648
Weeping in separation of the Imam of the Age 650
Praying Allah for Recognition of Imam 655
To Pray for Imam Regularly 657
Steadfastness in Praying for Imam 658
Reciting Supplications During the Period of Ghaibat 659
Knowledge of the Signs of Reappearance 659
Testimony of some signs 665
We must be Submissive as well as Impatient 665
Some traditions narrated from the Holy Imams 665
Types of hastes that are denounced, that lead to corruption, apostasy and infidelity 671
Giving Sadaqah on Behalf of Imam 676
Giving Sadaqah for the Safety of Imam Zamana 681
Performing Hajj on behalf of Imam or sending a proxy for him 682
To perform Tawaf on behalf of Imam or to send someone for performing Tawaf on his behalf 685
Ziarat of the Holy Prophet and Imams on behalf of Imam 686
To Send a Pilgrim for Ziarat on Behalf of Imam 687
Striving for Imam 687
Organizing help of Imam Zamana 692
Having a firm Intention of Helping Imam in event of his reappearance 694
Renewal of Oath at the hands of Imam Every day - Every Friday 695
Meaning of Bayat 695
Regarding the command of Bayyat 697
Renewal of Bayyat Everyday 698
Dua Ahd 699
Renewal of oath every Friday 702
Command for Bayyat in the second meaning 702
Another aspect of Bayyat 709
Helping Imam with one’s property 712
Monetary Assistance to the Pious Shias and Friends of Imam 717
Pleasing the Believers 718
Being a well-wisher of Imam Zamana 718
Ziarat of Imam 723
Meeting the righteous believers and socializing with them 723
Reciting Salawat and Salutations upon Imam 723
Gifting the Thawab of prayers to Imam 725
Gift of a Special Prayer 725
Prayer for Hadiya to Amirul Momineen Ali 726
Prayer for Hadiya to Janabe Fatima Zahra 727
Prayer for Hadiya to Imam Hasan 727
Prayer for Hadiya to Imam Husain 727
Prayer for Hadiya to Imam Sajjad 728
Prayer for Hadiya to Imam Baqir 728
Prayer for Hadiya to Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq 728
Prayer for Hadiya to Imam Musa Ibne Ja’far 729
Prayer for Hadiya to Imam Ali Reza 729
Prayer for Hadiya to Imam Muhammad Taqi, Imam Ali Naqi and Imam Hasan Askari 729
A Special Prayer in a particular time for Hadiya of Imam Zamana 731
Reward of Reciting Quran for Imam 731
Tawassul and seeking intercession through Imam Zamana 732
To ask from Imam and address him in supplications 733
Inviting people towards Imam 735
To take care of the rights and duties towards Imam 741
Humility and soft-heartedness while remembering Imam 742
The Scholars should make their Knowledge Evident 742
To practice Taqayyah with mischief-makers and to maintain secrecy from people of other faiths 742
To bear hardships, denials and other testing circumstances for the sake of Imam 747
Pray to Allah for Patience in Imam’s Separation 754
Enjoining Patience During Ghaibat 755
We should not sit in the Assembly where disrespect is caused to Imam 756
To Feign support to tyrant rulers 758
Avoiding Fame 759
Self Improvement (Development) 761
Unity and Co-operation in Imam’s help 762
Sincere Repentance and fulfillment of Rights 762
To Remember Imam and act upon his Teachings 762
Praying to Allah that we do not lose the remembrance of Imam 765
Humbling our body for Imam 766
Giving precedence to the wish of Imam Zamana to our wishes 767
Respecting all those near to Imam or associated with him 767
Venerating the Places visited by Imam 768
Justification and analysis regarding the saying of Amirul Momineen 770
Regarding the value of honoring those places and tombs 777
Not to fix the time of reappearance and to falsify those who fix the time 780
Conclusion of discussion 800
Falsifying those claiming Deputyship during the Greater Occultation 801
To pray for seeing the Imam with forgiveness and faith 809
Following Imam in Moral behavior and deeds 819
Restraining our tongue except for Allah’s Remembrance 824
Prayer of Imam Zamana 837
Weeping for Imam Husain 842
Visiting the tomb of Imam Husain 843
Excessively Cursing the Umayyads, openly and secretly 845
Active involvement in the fulfillment of rights of brothers-in-faith 847
Awaiting for the Reappearance and making Preparations for it 850
Bibliography 855