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(18) وَلاَ تُصَعّـِرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلاَ تَمْشِ في الأَرْضِ مَرَحاً إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ

18. "And do no turn your face away from people (in contempt), nor walk in the earth exultantly; verily Allah does not love any self-conceited boaster."

Commentary:

After that, Luqmān has referred to the morals in relation with people and himself. At first, he recommends his son to have modesty and good temper. The verse says:

"And do no turn your face away from people (in
contempt), …"

Then Luqmān continues saying:

"… nor walk in the earth exultantly; verily Allah does not
love any self-conceited boaster."

The Arabic word /tusa'ir/ is derived from /sa'ar/ which originally means a kind of sickness (torticollis) that usually paralyses the camel's neck.

The Qur'ānic term /marah/ means haughtiness produced because of affluence of bounties.

The Qur'ānic word /muxtāl/ is derived from /xiyāl/ and /xaylā'/ in the sense of the one who, usually because of some imaginations and vain conjectures, considers himself great.

The Arabic word /faxūr/ is derived from /faxr/ which means: he who shows haughtiness unto others. (the difference of /muxtāl/ and /faxūr/ is in this that the former points to inward imaginary pride and the latter refers to outward proudly deeds.)


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Thus, Luqmān, the wise, points to two very ugly attributes here which cause the sincere social relations to be vanished: one of them is haughtiness and heedlessness, and the other is pride and selfishness, both of which draw man into a world of misconception, delusion, and self-admiration and cease his relation from others.

Specially with regard to the original meaning of the world /sa'ar/ (torlicollis) that makes it clear that this kind of qualities is a sort of psychological ethical sickness, or a kind of deviation in realization and thought, else a safe and sound person from the point of mind and psyche never involves in such misconceptions and delusions.

It is evident that the purpose of Luqmān is not only the act of turning the face away from people, or walking exultantly and proudly, but the purpose is to struggle against all manifestations of arrogance and pride, and, before anything else, these qualities show themselves in the ordinary daily manner. Luqmān has emphasized on these particular qualities.

Some Examples of the modesty of the Friends of Allah:

1. The first personality of creation, i.e. the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.), used to sit among his companions in a way that he had no superiority to others, and whoever joined their meeting and did not know the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) he would ask: "Which one of you is the Messenger of Allah?"[1]

2. In a travelling, wherein everybody usually undertook a responsibility for providing food, the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) undertook a duty, too. He said: "I gather pieces of wood."[2]

3. As soon as the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) saw that there was not enough carpet for some ones to sit on, he gave his shoulder-mantle to them to sit on it.[1]


[1] Bihār, Vol. 47, P. 47

[2] Ibid, the Prophet's way of life


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Wearing simple clothing, riding in bare donkey, milking, accompanying with slaves, greeting to little children, patching up his shoe and clothes, accepting people's invitation, sweeping the house, shaking hand with all individuals, and not holding the food light, were among the Prophet's ways of life.[2]

4. In order to respect Imam Sādiq (a.s.), some of the believers wanted to forbid the entry of others into the public bathroom where the Imam was bathing, but the Imam did not let them and said: "You need not to do this. The life of a believer is simpler than this."[3]

5. Some persons insisted that Imam Ridā's table cloth could be separate from the table cloth of the servants, but he (a.s.) did not accept.[4]

6. Someone did not recognize Imam Ridā in a public bathroom; and he wanted him (a.s.) to rub his body. Without introducing himself, and with a complete dignity, the Imam accepted his demand. After that, when the man recognized the Imam, he began apologizing him. The Imam (a.s.) comforted him.[5]

Accepting others' suggestions and critics, and sitting in a place lower than the one's position, are among the signs of modesty.

* * * *


[1] Bihār, Vol. 16, P. 236

[2] Bihār, Vol. 16, P. 155; and Vol. 73, P. 208

[3] Bihār, Vol. 47, P. 47

[4] Kūdak-i-Falsafī, Vol. 2, P. 457

[5] Bihār, Vol. 49, P. 99