(6) النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَي بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ وَأُوْلُوا الاَرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَي بِبَعْضٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ إِلآَّ أَن تَفْعَلُوا إِلَي أَوْلِيَآئِكُم مَّعْرُوفاً كَانَ ذَلِكَ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَسْطُورًا
6. "The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves, and his wives are (as) their mothers, and blood-relations among each other have closer personal ties, in the Book of Allah, than the believers and the emigrants, except that you do some good to your friends, this (ordinance) is written in the Book."
It is cited in Majma'-ul-Bayān, the commentary, that the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) had appointed brethren knot between Muslims (the Emigrants and the Helpers) in a way that they inherited each other as real brothers, because at the beginning the Emigrants were far from their homes, properties, and relatives and the brethren knot could compensate these instances. Then the verse was sent down and cancelled such kind of heritage and implied that the criterion of a person to inherit is relationship.
So, when Islam expanded and the former communications gradually came forth, this ordinance was not necessary to be continued.
The above verse was revealed and cancelled the system of brethren-knot which was used to be substitute of linage and set the ordinance of heritage and the like special to the real relatives.
Therefore, though the system of brethren was an Islamic system, (opposite to the system of 'adopted son' which was a system in the Age of Ignorance), it ought to be cancelled after removing the extraordinary conditions, and it did. But in the verse under discussion, before mentioning this point, two other ordinances are referred to as a premise, saying that the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) is closer to the believers than their own selves and his wives are as their mothers. The verse says:
selves, and his wives are (as) their mothers, …"
Thus, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was as father and his wives were as mothers for the believers but they did not inherit from them, then how can it be expected that adopted sons become some heirs?
Then the verse adds:
personal ties, in the Book of Allah, than the believers and
the emigrants, …"
Yet, in the meanwhile, for the sake that the way might not be entirely closed to the Muslims and they can leave something as heritage for their friends and those in whom they are interested, even it is by the way of bequest due to one third of the property, at the end of the verse the Qur'ān adds:
In order to emphasize on all former ordinances, or on the recent ordinance, the holy verse implies that this ordinance is recorded in the Divine Book, (The Protected tablet or the Holy Qur'ān). It says:
What does 'the Prophet is closer to the believers' mean?
In this verse, the Qur'ān has mentioned the precedence of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) to Muslims in an absolute manner. Its
concept is that in all the things that man has authority unto him; the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) is also closer to him than his own self.
Some commentators have rendered it to the subject of 'management of social affairs' or 'precedence in the subject of judgment' or 'obedience for the command', but there is not, in fact, any evidence for restriction in each of these three things. And if we see that in some Islamic narrations 'precedence' has been rendered into 'government', in fact, it is the statement of one of the branches of this precedence.
Therefore, it must be said that the holy Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.) was closer to any person than his own self not only in social affairs, but also in personal and private affairs, and in affairs of government, and judgment and invitation, so that the will and desire of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) is prior to the will and desire of all men.
This subject must not be the cause of wonder, because the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) is infallible and he is Allah's agent. He does not think of anything save of goodness and interest of the society and individuals. He never follows the carnal desire. He never gives priority to his own benefits rather than to those of others. On the contrary, his programs are always alongside the benefits of human beings and self-sacrifice for them.
This precedence is, in fact, a branch of the precedence of Allah's will, because whatever we have belongs to Allah.
Moreover, a man can reach the peak of faith when he appoints his strongest love, which is the love of his own self, under the precedence of the love to the Essence of Allah and His agents.
 Nūr-uth-Thaqalayn, vol. 4, PP. 238-239
So, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) in a tradition said: "None of you reach to true faith until when his desire depends on what I have brought (from the side of Allah)."
In another tradition he (p.b.u.h.) also said: "By the One my life is in Whose hand, none of you reaches to true faith until when I am more beloved to him than his self, and his wealth, and his son and all people."
It is narrated from the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) who said: "There is no believer save that I am closer to him than his own self in the world and the Hereafter."
The Holy Qur'ān, in the current Sura, verse 36 says: "And it is not for any believer, man or woman, to have the choice in their affair when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter; and whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger indeed he has strayed off a manifest straying."
Again we emphasize that the concept of this statement is not that Allah has made His servants totally submit to the desires of an individual, but regarding that the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) possesses the rank of infallibility and according to the Qur'ān which says: "Nor does he (the Apostle) speak out of desire. It is naught but revelation that is revealed", whatever he says is from the side of Allah and is not from his own accord. He is even more sympathetic and sentimental than father.
This precedence, in fact, is alongside the path of the benefits of people both from the aspects of government and management of Islamic society, and from the personal and individual aspects.
 The commentary of Fī-Zilāl, following the verse  Ibid  Sahīh-i-Bukhārī, Vol. 6, P. 145, and Musnad Ahmad Hanbal, Vol. 2, P. 334  Sura An-Najm, No. 53, verses 3 and 4
It is for this reason that many a time this precedence puts some heavy responsibilities on the Prophet's shoulder. So, according to a famous tradition recorded in both Sunnite and Shi'ite sources, the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said: "I am closer to any believer than his own self. Whoever leaves a wealth, it is for his heir, and whoever leaves any debt (when he dies) or offspring and wife, the suretyship of them is upon me." This should be noted that the word /diyā'/ here means offspring or wife who are remained without any proper guardian, and the application of the word /dayn/ (debt) before it is also a clear frame of reference upon this meaning, because its purpose is to have debt without having any wealth.
* * * *
 Wasā'il-ush-Shī'ah, Vol. 17, P. 551